1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium supinum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Central & S. Europe to Africa, W. Asia to Indian Subcontinent.

    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Decumbent or procumbent annual 4–50 cm. long or tall or forming mats up to 30 cm. in diameter; stems densely silvery pubescent and spreading pilose and similar dual indumentum on most organs.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades grey-green, elliptic, ovate, obovate or ovate- lanceolate, 0.8–3.5 cm. long, 0.6–1.5 cm. wide, rounded to acuminate at the apex, cuneate at the base, plicate, the nerves deeply impressed above, densely white adpressed pubescent above with tubercle-based hairs and longer setae, with more tangled soft white pubescence beneath and longer hairs which are often brownish; petiole 0.2–2 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile in bilateral scorpioid cymes 2–9 cm. long; peduncles 0–3 cm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx 2–2.5 mm. long, divided into linear densely spreading white-pilose subacute or ± obtuse lobes.
    Corolla
    Corolla white, 2.5 mm. long; tube cylindric, ± 3 mm. long, pilose outside, glabrous inside; limb very small, with 5 ovate spreading rounded imbricate lobes.
    Stigma
    Stigma elongate- conic, hairy at the apex and about equalling the glabrous style, together ± 1 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruits of 1–4 nutlets or 1 only by abortion, remaining in the accrescent calyx with the corolla still attached at the apex; in Europe the nutlets are almost invariably reduced to 1, compressed ovoid, (3–)3.5–4 mm. long, 2.8–3.2 mm. wide, 1.5 mm. thick, plano-convex or biconvex, acute at the apex, the outer face smooth to verrucose, distinctly margined with obtuse compressed edge; in the tropics there are usually 2–4 (mainly 4) nutlets cohering but ultimately or sometimes readily separating, often rather narrower than are the single nutlets, similarly smooth to verrucose; eventually the nutlets are often smooth or ± corky.
    Figures
    Fig. 19/7, p. 71.
    Habitat
    Essentially on dried up riverine soil; lake-shores, dried river beds, very often on alluvial or black clay soils even when hard like concrete, mud under Acacia seyal and in Cordia, Capparidaceae, Salvadora, Pluchea associations, dried up ponds etc. and sometimes remaining as a weed during cultivation;375–1500 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T8 U1
    [FWTA]

    Boraginaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    Hairy much-branched herb, decumbent from a woody base.
    [FZ]

    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Prostrate or decumbent annual herb usually with 4 main stems rising in a cross; stems up to 35 cm. long, herbaceous, laterally compressed, ± densely clothed with retrorse appressed hairs, mixed with longer spreading ones.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate however subopposite to the base; petiole 3–15 mm. long (up to 27 mm. on the basal leaves); lamina 10–35 x 7–19 mm., broadly ovate to broadly obovate, rarely trullate or circular, densely appressed-pubescent or strigose above, pubescent or tomentose and bristly on the nerves below, obtuse to truncate at apex, acute to obtuse and often very asymmetrical at base, the nerves usually deepened above, prominent below.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes short, often 1, rarely 2–3 on each terminal peduncle.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or subsessile.
    Calyx
    Calyx 2.0–2.8 mm. long, enlarged up to 4.5(6) mm. in fruit, bristly outside, appressed hairy inside; lobes cohering up to near apex, obtuse.
    Corolla
    Corolla as long as or but little longer than the calyx, persisting over the fruit; tube greenish, densely clothed with retrorse appressed hairs outside, glabrous inside; limb white, divided into 5 minute oblong subequal lobes.
    Anthers
    Anthers c. 1 mm. long, linear, subsessile.
    Ovary
    Ovary globose, glabrous.
    Style
    Style c. 0.5 mm. long with short retrorse hairs, sometimes subglabrous; sterile appendix c. 0.5 mm. long, conical, shortly hairy at apex.
    Fruits
    Fruits up to 4 mm. long, ovoid, plano-convex or excavated by abortion of 2–3 nutlets, glabrous, enclosed in the calyx; nutlets often 2, rarely 1, very rarely 3 or 4 with the outer and the inner surfaces granulate-tuberculate, brown with a lighter well developed edge; rarely the fruits wholly covered with a greyish corky layer concealing the ornamentation.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Angola, Baleares, Bangladesh, Benin, Botswana, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, Corse, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Hungary, India, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kriti, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Romania, Sardegna, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tadzhikistan, Tanzania, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Heliotropium supinum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Bidgood, S. [6277], Tanzania K000468148
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7014], India Heliotropium malabaricum K001126564
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7014] Heliotropium malabaricum K001126565
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7014], India Heliotropium malabaricum K001126566
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 7014] Heliotropium malabaricum K001126567

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 130 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Verloove, F. (2017). New xenophytes from the Canary islands (Gran Canaria and Tenerife; Spain) Acta Botanica Croatica 76: 120-131.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Tamanyan, K.G. (2011). Checklist of Boraginaceae Juss. family in Armenia Takhtajania 1: 60-69.
    • Yera Posa, J. & Ascaso Martorell, J. (2009). De plantis vascularibus praesertim Ibericis (V) Flora Montiberica 43: 10-18.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1991). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 7: 1-439. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Riedl, H. (1967). Flora Iranica 48: 1-281. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 201.
    • F.T.A. 4, 2: 37
    • Sp. Pl. 130 (1763)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
    • Tamanyan, K.G. (2011). Checklist of Boraginaceae Juss. family in Armenia Takhtajania 1: 60-69.
    • Yera Posa, J. & Ascaso Martorell, J. (2009). De plantis vascularibus praesertim Ibericis (V) Flora Montiberica 43: 10-18.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Smithsonian Institution.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1991). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 7: 1-439. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Meikle, R.D. (1985). Flora of Cyprus 2: 833-1970. The Bentham-Moxon Trust Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Chukavina, A.P. (ed.) (1984). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 7: 1-562. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
    • Davis, P.H. (ed.) (1978). Flora of Turkey and the East Aegean Islands 6: 1-825. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1972). Flora Europaea 3: 1-370. Cambridge University Press.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    • Vvedensky, A.I. (ed.) (1961). Flora Uzbekistana 5: 1-667. Izd-va Akademii nauk Uzbekskoi SSR, Tashkent.
    • Schischkin, B.K. & al. (eds.) (1954). Flora Turkmenii 6: 1-402. Turkmenskoe gosudarstvennoe izd., Ashkhabad.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Martins in Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 93, t. 26/11 (1990).
    • Verdc. in Kew Bulletin 42: 710 (1987).
    • Meikle, Fl. Cyprus: 1123 (1985).
    • Riedl in Fl. Turkey 6: 255, fig. 11/12 (1978).
    • Kabuye & Agnew in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 520 (1974).
    • Täckh., Students’ Fl. Egypt, ed. 2: 442, t. 153/A (1974).
    • Kazmi in Journ. Arn. Arb. 51: 179 (1970).
    • Riedl in Fl. Iran. 48/15: 52 (1967).
    • Heine in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 322 (1963).
    • Bonnier, Fl. Compl. Fr., Suisse et Belg. 8:19, t. 429/2012 (1926).
    • Gamble, Fl. Madras 2: 896 (1923).
    • Bak. & Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 37 (1905).
    • Wright in Fl. Cap. 4(2): 8 (1904).
    • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1: 717 (1898).
    • Engl., Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr.: 351 (1892).
    • C.B.Cl. in Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 149 (1883).
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
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