1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium zeylanicum (Burm.f.) Lam.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Comoros, Indian Subcontinent.

    [FZ]

    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Erect or procumbent perennial herb up to 60(90) cm. high, usually with a thick rootstock; stems somewhat woody to the base, hispid.
    Leaves
    Leaves sessile or subsessile, 20–65(120) x 2–14(20) mm., linear to linear-lanceolate, rarely lanceolate, pubescent-hispid above, glabrous or subglabrous below, however hispid on the nerves, acute at apex, cuneate at base, margins entire; often small orange sessile or pedicled glands are present mainly on the lower surface.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes lax, ebracteate, single or more often in pairs, up to 25(30) cm. long when completely expanded.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1.5–2.0 (2.5) mm. long, lobes narrowly ovate, acute, 3-nerved, 3-ribbed outside over the nerves, ribs usually undulate, sometimes only the middle one, rarely not perceptibly undulate, ciliate on the margins and on the midrib, sometimes glandulous outside, pubescent to the apex inside, stellate-spreading after the nutlets are shed.
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow or greenish; tube 3.5–4.5(5.5) mm. long, widened to the upper half, pubescent or strigose outside by strips corresponding the lobes; corolla lobes 1.5–3.0 mm. long, caudate-acuminate, spreading, with the tip bent back inwards, at least in bud.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted between 1/2 and 2/3 from the base on the corolla tube; anthers 1.0–1.5 mm. long, lanceolate to oblong, shortly bifid at apex, subsessile.
    Ovary
    Ovary ovoid, glabrous.
    Pistil
    Style 1.0–2.0 mm. long, glabrous; stigmatic ring small; sterile appendix 0.8–1.3 mm. long, narrowly cone-shaped, brush-like.
    Fruits
    Fruits 1.7–2.3 x 2.0–2.5 mm., subglobulous, glabrous, rugose, usually bright brown; nutlets free, with the inner surfaces ± convex, irregular.
    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Perennial suffruticose herb 25–80 cm. tall, erect or sometimes procumbent at the base with a long thick rootstock or sometimes flowering ?as an annual or in its first year; stems branched, woody at the base, sparsely to densely covered with tubercle-based hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades linear to elliptic or sometimes lanceolate, 0.8–9(–12) cm. long, 0.2–1.2(–1.8 or exceptionally –2.4) cm. wide, acute at the apex, narrowly attenuate at the base, entire, sparsely to densely pubescent with tubercle-based hairs above and pubescent on nervation beneath; petiole obsolete or very short.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes spike-like, one-sided, single or paired, 1.5–30 cm. long; flowers sessile; bracts absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx lobed to the base, the lobes narrowly elliptic, 1.5–2.2(–3 in fruit) mm. long, 0.4–0.9 mm. wide, thick, glabrous or pubescent with margins ± undulate, sparsely ciliate, sparsely pubescent toward top inside.
    Corolla
    Corolla with white tube and yellow-green limb extending along midrib into throat, or with yellow-brown centre; tube ± cylindrical, slender, 2.8–4.5 mm. long, widened above, pubescent outside in bands corresponding to the lobes; limb spreading, 4–8 mm. (including tails) or ± 2 mm. (excluding tails) wide, the lobes triangular at base, 0.5–1 mm. (excluding tails), caudate-acuminate, the tails subulate or flattened at base, 2–3.5(–4) mm. long, pubescent outside.
    Style
    Style 0.7–1.5 mm. long, with a conic stigma 1.3–1.7 mm. long terminated by a tuft of hairs.
    Fruits
    Fruit subglobose, 1.5 mm. tall, 2–2.6 mm. diameter, glabrous, verrucose, breaking into 4 nutlets.
    Figures
    Fig. 14/3, p. 54; 15.
    Habitat
    Acacia-Commiphora-Salvadora etc. bushland, grassland with or without scattered trees, also as a weed of roadsides and cultivations; 0–1650(–?1740) m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1
    [FWTA]

    Boraginaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A coarse, erect branched perennial with tap-root, more or less glandular hairy
    Flowers
    Small whitish tubular flowers in lax scorpioid spikes up to 9 in. long.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Eritrea, Ethiopia, India, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Socotra, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Heliotropium zeylanicum (Burm.f.) Lam. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ash [343], Ethiopia Heliotropium subulatum 6049.375
    Schimper [1285], Ethiopia Heliotropium subulatum K000418804
    Welwitsch [5420], Angola Heliotropium subulatum K000418767
    Kotschy [163], Sudan Heliotropium subulatum K000418807 isosyntype
    [illegible] [s.n.] Heliotropium subulatum K000418805
    Royle, J.F. [s.n.], India Heliotropium subulatum K000998207

    First published in Encycl. 3: 94 (1789)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Riedl, H. (1967). Flora Iranica 48: 1-281. Akademische Druck- u. Verlagsanstalt, Graz.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Somalia 3: 1-626. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Collenette, S. (1999). Wildflowers of Saudi Arabia: 1-799. National commission for wildlife conservation and development (NCWCD), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Taton, A. (1971). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Boraginaceae: 1-82. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1963). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 2: 1-544.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Martins in Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 89, t. 26/4 (1990).
    • Verdc. in Kew Bulletin 44: 166 (1989).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 778 (1962).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 82 (1956).
    • De Wild. & Staner, Contr. Fl. Katanga, Suppl. 4: 86 (1932).
    • Hutch. & Dalz., Flora of West Tropical Africa 2: 199 (1931).
    • Bak. & Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 31 (1905).
    • Hiern, Cat. Afr. Pl. Welw. 1: 720 (1898).
    • Gürke in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 336 (1895).
    • C.B.Cl. in Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 148 (1883).
    • Wight, Ic. Pl. Ind. Or. 3: 8, t. 892 (1843).
    • Lam., Encycl. Méth. Bot. 3: 94 (1789).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/