1. Family: Acanthaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Thunbergia Retz.
      1. Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottler) Roxb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Central Nepal to Indo-China.

    [KBu]

    Adhikari, B., Pendry, C.A., Watson, M.F. et al. 2013. Kew Bulletin 68: 651. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9481-x

    Type
    Type: Image, Bot. Reg. 6: 495 (1820), lectotype selected by Kartesz & Gandhi (1991: 89).
    Habit
    Vigorous climbing shrub to more than 10 m
    Stem
    Stem angular, sulcate, glabrous to pubescent
    Leaves
    Leaves ovate or ovate-triangular, 5 – 19 × 3.5 – 16 cm, base cuneate or cordate, sometimes hastate, apex acute to shortly acuminate, margin sinuate or irregularly remotely dentate with a few large teeth in lower half, palmately 3 – 5-veined, puberulent to densely pubescent, often scabrous, petioles 3 – 7 cm
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary (rarely paired) in leaf axils or in the axils of bracts to form terminal usually one-sided racemes 5 – 20 cm long, pedicels 4 – 12 cm; bracts (in racemes) resembling reduced leaves, ovate, mostly 2.5 – 5 × 1 – 3 cm, pubescent; bracteoles green, punctate, oblong to ovate, 2 – 3.8 (− 4.5) × 1 – 1.6 cm, apex mucronate, pubescent, denser at margin
    Calyx
    Calyx rim-like, unlobed, c. 2 mm in flower, up to 5 mm high in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla white or bluish-white with yellow throat, glabrous, tube 3 – 5 cm, constricted at base for c. 8 mm then abruptly ventricose and widened to 2 cm at mouth, lobes obovate to rounded, 2.5 – 4 × 2 – 2.5 cm
    Filaments
    Filaments unequal, shorter 6 – 9 mm, longer 9 – 14 mm, very shortly pubescent, with a tuft of hairs at base, anthers bearded, 7 – 10 mm, spurred, the spur 3 – 4 mm, finely acuminate
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, style 3 – 4 cm, stigma bilobed, lobes subequal-Capsule glabrous or pubescent, basal part 1 – 1.8 cm wide, beak 2 – 3 cm long; seeds c. 7 – 8 mm
    Distribution
    Native in the East Himalaya from Central Nepal (Map 3) to Burma (Myanmar), but naturalised and perhaps native elsewhere in SW China and SE Asia. Widely cultivated throughout the world for its showy white flowers.
    Ecology
    Climber on forest margins and road sides, alt. 200 – 1300 m.
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC). This taxon is known from many collections and is commonly found in Tarai region of Nepal. It is also found in Bhutan and NE India.
    Phenology
    Flowering July to November; fruiting July to December.
    Vernacular
    Nepali. KagChuchche.
    Note
    The image in Bot. Reg. 6: 495 (Roxburgh 1820) was first cited as the “type” by Kartesz & Gandhi in 1991 in their nomenclatural notes for the North American Flora and this constituted effective lectotypification at that date (for a discussion of the lack of clarity in lectotypification at that time, see Barrie et al. (1992)) so rendering Wood’s (1994: 176) neotypification of the same image superfluous. Thunbergia grandiflora has both axillary and terminal racemose inflorescences (Fig. 3A, B). As it has large flowers very few herbarium specimens show both types of inflorescence and this has led several taxonomists to describe new varieties or species (Wood 1994) based on one or other of these two inflorescence forms.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Assam, Bangladesh, Cambodia, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Fiji, Myanmar, Nepal, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, Belize, Cameroon, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Gabon, Gambia, Guatemala, Haiti, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mauritius, Panamá, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Réunion, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Thunbergia grandiflora (Roxb. ex Rottler) Roxb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 29, 2015 Shiu Ying Hu [5821], China K000938757
    Deighton, F.C. [5914], Sierra Leone 19042.000
    Ball, J. [s.n.], Brazil K001032363
    Pereira, B.A.S. [1008], Brazil K001032362
    Clarke, C.B. [5397], Meghalaya K000357684 Unknown type material
    Burkill, I.H. [s.n.], India K000357694 Unknown type material
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 768], India K001111845
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 768], Nepal K001111858
    Bruce, H. [Cat. no. 768], Bangladesh K001111853
    s.coll. [s.n.], India K000357695 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 768] K001111846
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 768] K001111847
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 768] K001111848
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 768], India K001111852
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 768] K001111854
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 768] K001111851
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 768] K001111850
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 768] K001111849
    Forrest, G. [12193], Yunnan Thunbergia adenophora K000898161 Unknown type material
    Lace, J.H. [6303], Myanmar Thunbergia lacei K000898164
    Lace, J.H. 5419 [s.n.], Myanmar Thunbergia lacei K000898163

    First published in Bot. Reg. 6: 6 (1820)

    Accepted by

    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Ningombam, D.S. (2014). The family Acanthaceae for the flora of Manipur: 1-115. LAP Lambert academic publishing.
    • Adhikari, B., Pendry, C.A., Watson, M.F. & Wood, J.R.I. (2013). An account of Thunbergia (Acanthaceae) in Nepal, with a description of the new species T. nepalensis Kew Bulletin 68: 651-661. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 127-135: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Wood (2001: 1248).
    • Press et al. (2000: 5);
    • Hara (1982: 145);
    • Clarke (1884: 392);
    • Roxburgh (1820: 495)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Ningombam, D.S. (2014). The family Acanthaceae for the flora of Manipur: 1-115. LAP Lambert academic publishing.
    • Adhikari, B., Pendry, C.A., Watson, M.F. & Wood, J.R.I. (2013). An account of Thunbergia (Acanthaceae) in Nepal, with a description of the new species T. nepalensis Kew Bulletin 68: 651-661. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (2000). Flore des Mascareignes 127-135: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0