1. Family: Talinaceae (Fenzl) Doweld
    1. Genus: Talinum Adans.
      1. Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [KBu]

    Mendoza F., J. & Wood, J.R.I. 2013. Taxonomic revision of Talinum (Talinaceae) in Bolivia with a note on the occurrence of Phemeranthus (Montiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9454-0

    Habit
    Erect, ascending or (rarely) decumbent fleshy herb 0.3 – 0.5 m in height; root usually tuberous, napiform, 1.5 – 4 × 0.8 – 2 cm long; central stem present, robust, fleshy, terete, usually with 2 – 3 secondary stems arising from the base; branching moderate to abundant in the upper half of the stem
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate from the base, but frequently becoming verticillate below the inflorescence, fleshy, subsessile or with petioles 2 – 5 (– 10) mm long; laminas fleshy, obovate to elliptic, (1.5 –) 3 – 7 (– 10) × 1 – 3 (– 4) cm, apex rounded or, rarely, acute, base attenuate
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of trifurcately branched terminal cymes (5 –) 8 – 15 (– 20) × (1.5 –) 3 – 6 (– 9) cm, subtended by a triangular winged peduncle; floral branches verticillate or, below, in 3s (rarely inflorescence unbranched), triangular, winged, 0.5 – 1.5 cm long; bracts and bracteoles linear-lanceolate, 3 – 5 mm long; pedicels filiform, scarcely widened below flower
    Flowers
    Flowers open during the day from 09 to 16 hours, large, ± 1.5 cm in diam., numerous, 7 – 30 flowers per inflorescence; sepals 2, narrowly triangular, 6 – 9 × 4 – 5 mm, subequal, usually caducous, apex strongly aristate; petals obovate, straight or weakly reflexed, apex rounded or obscurely mucronate, deep or pale pink, white or (rarely) red; filaments 30 – 40, unequal; anthers elliptic, bright yellow; style exceeding the filaments, filiform, terete; stigma trifid
    Fruits
    Fruit a weakly 3-angled subglobose capsule opening by three separate valves, valves usually caducous, intervalvular membrane and filament absent; seeds (Fig. 1A) lenticular, 1 – 1.2 × 0.8 – 1 mm, brown or blackish and superficially reticulate, the surface being covered with small, irregularly arranged papillose protuberances, these denser towards the margins; membranous caruncle absent
    Distribution
    Widely distributed as a weed in tropical America from the United States through Mexico, Nicaragua and South America to the north of Argentina. In Bolivia it is known from Beni, Chuquisaca, Cochabamba, La Paz, Santa Cruz and Tarija. It grows in dry, semi-deciduous forest including Yungas forest, dry chaco forest and open woodland of the warmer inter-Andean valleys with chaco influence which intergrades with Tucuman-Bolivian forest. It is found between 80 and 1500 m, always in places disturbed by the impact of humans such as roadsides, tracks and forest edges.
    Conservation
    A widespread weed throughout the neotropics including Bolivia so can be categorised as Least Concern (LC) within the IUCN (2001) guidelines.
    Note
    This is the most variable species in the genus and shows variation in size, habit (erect, decumbent or clambering), leaf shape (broad to narrow), branching of the inflorescence, number, size and colour of flowers and the development of papillae on the seeds (Fig. 1A). The amount of variation raises doubts over whether this is a single highly variable species as a consequence of its wide distribution and adaptation to different habitats or whether two or more closely related taxa are involved. It is hoped that with the aid of molecular studies these uncertainties can be resolved in the future. For the time being in this paper a highly variable Talinum fruticosums.l. is accepted. Within this broad definition, this species is not easily confused with any other. The inflorescence, which is composed of trifurcate terminal cymes with up to 30 flowers, the 3-angled, winged stems and inflorescence branches and the large pink to reddish (rarely whitish) flowers 1.5 cm in diam. make this species easily recognisable in Bolivia.
    [FWTA]

    Portulacaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    Erect herb with fleshy leaves, woody below
    Flowers
    Flowers pink, rarely white
    Fruits
    Capsule straw-coloured
    Ecology
    A naturalized weed, sometimes cultivated.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Suriname

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Benin, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Congo, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, New Mexico, Nigeria, Ogasawara-shoto, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Togo, Zaïre

    Talinum fruticosum (L.) Juss. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2005 Etuge, M. [5236], Cameroon K000199780
    Jan 1, 1989 Westphal [10062], Cameroon K000106384
    Palmer, E. [415], Tamaulipas K000424598 Unknown type material
    Sep 1, 2002 Etuge, M. [1546], Cameroon Talinum triangulare K000008460
    Jan 1, 1992 Watts, J. [354], Cameroon Talinum triangulare K000381357
    Hutchinson, J. [137], Cameroon Talinum triangulare K000106386
    Thompson, S.A. [1492], Cameroon Talinum triangulare K000106385

    First published in Gen. Pl.: 312 (1789)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2014). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 7: 1-840. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
    • Mendoza F., J.M. & Wood, J.R.I. (2013). Taxonomic revision of Talinum (Talinaceae) in Bolivia with a note on the occurrence of Phemeranthus (Montiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 233-247. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • van Proosdij, A.S.J. (2012). Arnoldo's Zakflora, ed. 4: 1-318. Walburg Pers, Zutphen.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.

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    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0