1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Nassella (Trin.) É.Desv.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Temp. & Subtropical to Tropical Montane America.

    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes absent (109), or short (12), or elongated (2). Culms erect (82/86), or geniculately ascending (20/86), or decumbent (3/86); robust (1/16), or slender (14/16), or weak (1/16); 5-54.29-175 cm long; without nodal roots (1/1). Culm-internodes terete (3/3). Culm-nodes constricted (3/12), or flush with internodes (4/12), or swollen (5/12). Lateral branches lacking (44/48), or sparse (1/48), or ample (4/48). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (119), or erect (1). Ligule an eciliate membrane (113), or a ciliolate membrane (5), or a fringe of hairs (2), or absent (1). Leaf-blades persistent (118), or deciduous at the ligule (3); aciculate (2), or filiform (41), or linear (82); herbaceous (119), or coriaceous (1); stiff (16), or firm (103), or flaccid (1). Leaf-blade apex muticous (107), or pungent (13).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; terminal, or terminal and axillary (3); not deciduous as a whole (118), or deciduous as a whole (2); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (113), or an inflated leaf-sheath (7); exserted (94), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (40). Peduncle persistent (119), or disarticulating (1). Panicle open (100), or contracted (25), or spiciform (1). Primary panicle branches not whorled (117), or whorled at most nodes (3). Spikelets appressed (2/2); solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels filiform (2/2); tip widened (2/2).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (119/119). Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (109), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (7), or obovate (1); laterally compressed (15), or subterete (105); 2.5-11.91-49 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (28), or evident (39), or elongated (56); glabrous (5/114), or sparsely hairy (1/114), or pubescent (83/114), or pilose (20/114), or bearded (6/114); obtuse (23), or acute (47), or pungent (50).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension (119/119). Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (109), or elliptic (1), or oblong (1), or ovate (7), or obovate (1); laterally compressed (15), or subterete (105); 2.5-11.91-49 mm long; breaking up at maturity; disarticulating below each fertile floret. Floret callus brief (28), or evident (39), or elongated (56); glabrous (5/114), or sparsely hairy (1/114), or pubescent (83/114), or pilose (20/114), or bearded (6/114); obtuse (23), or acute (47), or pungent (50).
    Glume
    Glumes persistent (119/119); shorter than spikelet (2), or reaching apex of florets (2), or exceeding apex of florets (119); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (119), or gaping (1). Lower glume linear (7), or lanceolate (108), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2), or ovate (3); 0.75-1.068-1.7 length of upper glume; hyaline (25), or membranous (95); without keels (105), or 1-keeled (15); 1 -veined (7/105), or 2 -veined (4/105), or 3 -veined (97/105), or 4 -veined (16/105), or 5 -veined (18/105), or 6 -veined (1/105). Lower glume lateral veins absent (7), or obscure (2), or distinct (115). Lower glume surface smooth (106), or asperulous (11), or scabrous (7); glabrous (116), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (3), or pilose (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (1/119), or acute (10/119), or acuminate (65/119), or attenuate (23/119), or setaceously attenuate (22/119), or cuspidate (1/119); muticous (114), or mucronate (1), or awned (5). Upper glume linear (6), or lanceolate (109), or elliptic (1), or oblong (2), or ovate (3); 1.1-1.983-4 length of adjacent fertile lemma; hyaline (28), or membranous (92); without keels (109), or 1-keeled (11); 1 -veined (3/103), or 2 -veined (2/103), or 3 -veined (86/103), or 4 -veined (15/103), or 5 -veined (30/103), or 6 -veined (1/103). Upper glume primary vein eciliate (118), or ciliolate (2), or ciliate (2). Upper glume surface smooth (106), or asperulous (11), or scabrous (7); glabrous (116), or puberulous (2), or pubescent (3), or pilose (1). Upper glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (11), or acuminate (67), or attenuate (22), or setaceously attenuate (21), or cuspidate (1); muticous (117), or mucronate (1), or awned (2); 1 -awned (2/2).
    Florets
    Fertile lemma linear (26), or lanceolate (54), or elliptic (11), or oblong (11), or ovate (1), or orbicular (1), or oblate (1), or obovate (16); laterally compressed (21), or subterete (99); not gibbous (107), or gibbous (13); membranous (1), or chartaceous (12), or coriaceous (109); without keel (109), or keeled (11); 5 -veined (101/101). Lemma midvein eciliate (93), or ciliolate (5), or ciliate (11), or pubescent (12). Lemma lateral veins prominent (1/1). Lemma surface smooth (55), or granulose (1), or asperulous (13), or scaberulous (6), or scabrous (2), or papillose (39), or tuberculate (6), or striate (1), or punctate (1); unwrinkled (119), or rugulose (1); glabrous (50), or puberulous (8), or pubescent (43), or pilose (20), or villous (1), or woolly (1); hairy on back (59/72), or on veins (12/72), or in lines (1/72); without hair tufts (116), or with conspicuous apical hairs (4). Lemma margins convolute; covering most of palea; eciliate (115), or ciliate (4), or pubescent (1). Lemma apex entire (118), or dentate (2); 2 -fid (2/2); emarginate (1/13), or truncate (5/13), or obtuse (7/13), or acute (1/13); without appendage (33), or with an annular corona (2), or with a membranous corona (57), or surmounted by a ring of hairs (65), or with a short cylindrical neck (3); awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn median (101), or eccentric (20); apical (119), or from a sinus (1); curved (1), or flexuous (8), or geniculate (34), or bigeniculate (92); limb glabrous (118), or ciliate (1), or hirsute (1). Column of lemma awn glabrous (56/115), or hispidulous (5/115), or puberulous (16/115), or pubescent (29/115), or ciliate (7/115), or hirtellous (1/115), or hirsute (1/115), or plumose (1/115). Palea present (119), or absent or minute (1); 0.1-0.4042-1 length of lemma; hyaline (7/119), or membranous (112/119); 0 -veined (102/110), or 2 -veined (8/110); without keels (117/119), or 2-keeled (2/119). Palea surface glabrous (118/119), or pubescent (1/119), or pilose (1/119). Palea apex erose (1/1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (67/78), or 3 (16/78); membranous (2/2). Anthers 1 (7/109), or 3 (105/109). Stigmas 2 (93/93). Ovary glabrous (75/76), or pubescent on apex (1/76).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (108/108); linear (11/82), or fusiform (53/82), or ellipsoid (8/82), or oblong (4/82), or obovoid (10/82); laterally compressed (1/1); trigonous (1/1). Embryo 0.2-0.275-0.35 length of caryopsis. Hilum linear (97/97); 0.5-0.7617-1 length of caryopsis.
    Cleistogene
    Cleistogenes absent (117), or present (3); in upper sheaths (1/3), or in lower sheaths (2/3).
    Distribution
    Europe (1), or Africa (3), or Temperate Asia (1), or Australasia (7), or Pacific (1), or North America (10), or South America (113).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alberta, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Bolivia, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Chile Central, Chile North, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Guatemala, Idaho, Illinois, Iowa, Juan Fernández Is., Kansas, Louisiana, Manitoba, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Minnesota, Montana, Nebraska, New Mexico, North Dakota, Northwest Territorie, Oklahoma, Paraguay, Peru, Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Texas, Uruguay, Utah, Venezuela, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Austria, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, France, Free State, Great Britain, Greece, Hawaii, Italy, Kentucky, Madeira, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, Oregon, Queensland, South Australia, Spain, St.Helena, Switzerland, Tasmania, Victoria

    Nassella (Trin.) É.Desv. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in C.Gay, Fl. Chil. 6: 263 (1854)

    Accepted by

    • Sclovich, S.E., Giussani, L.M., Ciadella, A.M. & Sede, S.M. (2015). Phylogenetic analysis of Jarava (Poaceae, Pooideae, Stipeae) and related genera: testing the value of the awn indumendum in the circumscription of Jarava Plant Systematics and Evolution 301: 1625-1641.
    • Cialdella, A.M., Muñoz-Schick, M. & Morrone, O. (2013). Sinopsis de las especies Austro-Americanas del género Nassella (Poaceae, Pooideae, Stipeae) Darwiniana, n.s., 1: 76-161.
    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0