1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Senna Mill.
      1. Senna alata (L.) Roxb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is SW. Mexico to Tropical America.

    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Cultivated, Guinea-Congolian anthropic landscapes, Guinea-Congolia/Sudania regional transition zone; anthropic landscapes.
    Habit
    Perennial, Not climbing, Herb/Shrub/Tree
    Vernacular
    Acapulco, Candelabra Bush, Candle Bush, Candle-bush, Candlestick Plant, Candlesticks, Carrion Crow Bush, Casse De Java, Catepan, Catepen, Cattiping, Dadmurdan, Dartres, Dartrier, Datkapat, Epis d'Or, Fleur a Dartre, Fleur St. Christophe, Flor Del Secreto,
    [FWTA]

    Caesalpiniaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A soft-wooded shrub, up to 15 ft. or more high
    Flowers
    Yellow flowers in stout dense erect racemes
    Fruits
    Fruits black when ripe
    Ecology
    In villages and clearings, chiefly in forest regions.
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Herb or shrub 1–6 m. high.
    Stem
    Young stems puberulous with minute spreading hairs, eglandular.
    Leaves
    Leaves mostly 30–75 cm. long; petiole and rhachis eglandular. Stipules obliquely triangular, 0.6–1.3 cm. long, 0.3–1 cm. wide. Leaflets in 5–7 (–13) pairs, oblong-elliptic to obovate-elliptic, mostly 5–19 cm. long and 2.5–12 cm. wide, rounded and usually retuse at apex, usually with a short mucro 0.5–1.5 mm. long, puberulous especially on midrib, lateral nerves and margins.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes (including peduncle) 15–70 cm. long.
    Bracts
    Bracts subtending flower-buds large, orange, 2–2.8 cm. long, 1.2–1.7 cm. wide.
    Corolla
    Petals bright yellow, 1.7–2.2 cm. long, 0.9–1.2 cm. wide.
    Stamens
    Stamens normally 10; filaments straight or nearly so; 2 anthers large, 5 medium, 3 small.
    Fruits
    Pods 12–17(–19) cm. long, 1.3–2 cm. wide (to 3 cm. across wings), dehiscent, transversely septate, with a crenate-margined wing running longitudinally along the middle of each valve.
    Seeds
    Seeds flattened at right angles to the axis of the pod, deltoid-rhombic, acuminate to the hilum, with a longitudinal ridge along each face, 6–8 mm. long, 4–5 mm. wide, 1.5–2.5 mm. thick.
    Habitat
    Uncertain, but in the Flora area doubtless always an escape from cultivation; near sea-level to 460 m.
    Distribution
    P T3 T6 Z pantropical, originally from South America

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Hainan

    Native to:

    Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Southwest Caribbean, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Brazil South, Burkina, Burundi, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Northern Territory, Oman, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Sumatera, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zaïre

    Senna alata (L.) Roxb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2007 Ferrucci, M.S. [2376], Bolivia K001041921
    Jan 1, 2005 Galiano, W. [4396], Peru K001041931
    Sep 18, 2002 Akoegninou A. et al. [2293], Benin K000117635
    Jul 1, 2001 Bruneau, A. [1076], Cameroon K000108223
    Jan 1, 2000 Sanjines, A. [249], Bolivia K001041935
    Jan 1, 1999 Manuñak, V. [964], Argentina K001259743
    Jan 1, 1998 Carrion [631], Bolivia K001041936
    Dec 1, 1997 Mann, G. [1000], Gabon K000232485
    Dec 1, 1997 Mann, G. [1000], Gabon K000232486
    Dec 1, 1997 Barter [3348], Nigeria K000417511
    Dec 1, 1997 Barter [s.n.], Sierra Leone K000417512
    Jul 1, 1997 Etuge, M. [371], Cameroon K000092587
    Jul 1, 1997 Manning, S.D. [519], Cameroon K000092589
    Jul 1, 1997 Manning, S.D. [519], Cameroon K000092590
    Jun 1, 1995 França, F. [1216], Bahia K000055484
    Jan 1, 1995 JRT [1047], Peru K001041930
    Jan 1, 1987 Balée, W.L. [1593], Pará K000841007
    Nov 1, 1986 Coradin, L. [5839], Piauí K000055878
    Jan 1, 1986 Thomas, W. [4630], Mato Grosso K000841005
    Jan 1, 1985 Teixeira, L.O.A. [381], Rondônia K000840995
    Jan 1, 1983 Hage, J.L. [680], Bahia K000055875
    Jan 1, 1983 Hage, J.L. [1135], Bahia K000055876
    Jan 1, 1983 Heringer, E.P. [4581], Brazil K000841151
    Jan 1, 1983 Oliveira, P.I. [429], Goiás K000841008
    Jan 1, 1974 Belém, R.P. [3567], Bahia K000055877
    Hinton, G.B. [5660], Mexico K000119648
    Hinton, G.B. [5660], Mexico K000119649
    Hinton, G.B. [6904], Mexico K000119650
    Hinton, G.B. [11764], Mexico K000119651
    Hinton, G.B. [10887], Mexico K000119652
    Hinton, G.B. [10887], Mexico K000119653
    Hinton, G.B. [10956], Mexico K000119654
    Hinton, G.B. [10956], Mexico K000119655
    Hunt, D.R. [5571], Mato Grosso K000840992
    Hunt, D.R. [5571], Mato Grosso K000840993
    Hunt, D.R. [5571], Mato Grosso K000840994
    Whitmore, T.C. [793], Ecuador K001041933
    Whitmore, T.C. [s.n.], Ecuador K001041934
    Lewis, G.P. [1468], Roraima K000841006
    Burchell [2976], Rio de Janeiro K000841002
    Burchell [6160], Goiás K000841003
    Lehmann [K13], Colombia K001041928
    Krapovickas, A. [42169], Argentina K001259742
    Irwin, H.S. [5945], Brazil K000840996
    Irwin, H.S. [13173], Brazil K000840997
    Irwin, H.S. [48781], Amapá K000841000
    Callejas, R. [3200], Colombia K001041927
    Mexia, Ynes [8455], Ecuador K001041932
    illegible [1372], Bolivia K001041922
    Rusby, H.H. [19], Venezuela K001041923
    Colchester [2411], Venezuela K001041924
    Almeida, E.F. [209], Minas Gerais K000841009
    Cid, C.A. [4647], Rondônia K000841004
    Prance, G.T. [1821], Maranhão K000841001
    Lewis, W.H. [955], Panama K001041929
    Regnell, A.F. [476], Minas Gerais K000840999
    Triana, J. [s.n.], Colombia K001041925
    Glaziou [10685], Rio de Janeiro K000840998
    Bridgeman, A.R. [355], Colombia K001041926
    Brenan, J.P.M. [8793], Nigeria Cassia alata 11445.000
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5301] Cassia alata K001120439
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5301] Cassia alata K001120440
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5301] Cassia alata K001120441
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5301] Cassia alata K001120442
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5301] Cassia alata K001120443

    First published in Fl. Ind. ed. 1832, 2: 349 (1832)

    Accepted by

    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Souza, V.C. & al. (2016). Flora dos Estados de Goiás e Tocantins 48: 1-147. Universidade federal de Goiás.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • da Silva e Silva, W.L., Cajueiro Gurgel, E.S., Moreira dos Santos, J.U. & Falcão da Silva, M. (2013). Inventário e distribuição geográfica de Leguminosae no arquipélago de Marajó, PA, Brazil Hoehnea 40: 627-647.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Hedberg, I., Friis, I. & Persson, E. (2009). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 1: 1-305. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Barua, K.N. & Khatry, P.K. (2009). Alien forest weeds in upper Brahmaputra valler and hill zones of Assam Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 414-422.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Brummitt, R.K., Chikuni, A.C., Lock, J.M. & Polhill, R.M. (2007). 61. Leguminosae Subfamily Caesalpinioideae Flora Zambesiaca 3(2): 1-218. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (2007). Flora of the Sultanate of Oman. volume 2. Crassulaceae - Apiaceae Scripta Botanica Belgica 36: 1-220.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Smith, A.C. (1985). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 3: 1-758. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • da Silva e Silva, W.L., Cajueiro Gurgel, E.S., Moreira dos Santos, J.U. & Falcão da Silva, M. (2013). Inventário e distribuição geográfica de Leguminosae no arquipélago de Marajó, PA, Brazil Hoehnea 40: 627-647.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Paña-Chocarro, M.C., Espada-Mateos, C., Vera, M., Céspedes, G. & Knapp, S. (2010). Updated checklist of vascular plants of the Mbaracayú Forest Nature Reserve (Reserva Natural del Bosque Mbaracayú), Paraguay Phytotaxa 12: 1-224.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Hedberg, I., Friis, I. & Persson, E. (2009). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 1: 1-305. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Barua, K.N. & Khatry, P.K. (2009). Alien forest weeds in upper Brahmaputra valler and hill zones of Assam Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 414-422.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Suzuki, M., Taufatofua, P. & Koyama, T. (2007). New records of plants from Tonga Makinoa, n.s., 6: 25-62.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (2007). Flora of the Sultanate of Oman. volume 2. Crassulaceae - Apiaceae Scripta Botanica Belgica 36: 1-220.
    • Catarino, L., Martins, E.S., Diniz, M.A. & Pinto-Basto, M.F. (2006). Check-list da flora vascular do parque natural das Lagos de Cufada (Guiné-Bissau) Garcia de Orta, Série de Botânica 17: 97-141.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/