1. Family: Convolvulaceae Juss.
    1. Merremia Dennst. ex Endl.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to Temp. Asia.

    [FTEA]

    Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

    Habit
    Herbs or shrubs, usually twiners but often prostrate, rarely erect
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary or in few- to many-flowered axillary inflorescences, small to rather large
    Calyx
    Sepals usually subequal, save in a very few species, elliptic to orbicular, obtuse or acute, sometimes accrescent
    Corolla
    Corolla funnel-shaped or campanulate, entire or slightly lobed, rarely deeply lobed, white or usually yellow* with various centres
    Stamens
    Stamens included; pollen smooth
    Pistil
    Ovary 2–4-locular, 4-ovuled; style simple, filiform; stigma biglobular
    Fruits
    Capsule 4-valved or dehiscing irregularly, 1–4-locular
    Note
    Only the following species of Ipomoea have yellow flowers :— I. tuberculata, alpina, obscura, and ochracea.
    [FZ]

    Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

    Habit
    Herbs or small shrubs, usually twiners, often prostrate, rarely erect.
    Stem
    Stems terete, more rarely winged.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually petiolate, variable in shape and size, entire, dentate, auricled, lobed or palmately or pedately partite to compound.
    Flowers
    Flowers axillary, solitary or in few- to many-flowered axillary inflorescences, small to rather large, usually cymose.
    Bracts
    Bracts usually small.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, usually subequal, elliptic to lanceolate, ovate or oblong, acute or obtuse, sometimes accrescent.
    Corolla
    Corolla funnel-shaped or campanulate, entire or slightly lobed, rarely deeply lobed, mostly with distinct midpetaline areas, white or yellow with various centres, often darker brownish or purplish centre.
    Stamens
    Stamens often contorted; filaments filiform, often broadened at the base, often unequal; pollen smooth.
    Pistil
    Ovary 2–4-locular, 4-ovuled; style simple, filifrom, included; stigma biglobose.
    Disc
    Disk often annular.
    Fruits
    Capsule 4-valved or dehiscing irregularly, 1–4-locular.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4, or less by abortion, glabrous or pubescent.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Buryatiya, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Christmas I., Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Khabarovsk, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Marianas, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mongolia, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Panamá, Peru, Philippines, Primorye, Queensland, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Colombia, Leeward Is., Society Is., Trinidad-Tobago, Windward Is.

    Recorded in error in:

    Hawaii

    Merremia Dennst. ex Endl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar Merremia K001132439

    First published in Gen. Pl., Suppl. 1: 1403 (1841)

    Accepted by

    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Dobignard, A. & C. Chatelain in Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Convolvulaceae Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 331-351. Conservatoire et Jardin Botanique de la ville de Genève.
    • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Johnson, R.W. (2009). A conspectus of Merremia Dennst. Ex Endl. (Convolvulaceae) in Australia with the addition of two species Austrobaileya 8: 55-63.
    • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Thulin, M. et al. in Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Convolvulaceae Flora of Somalia 3: 221-258. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
    • Austin, D.F. in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (1998). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 4: 377-424. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Barker, R.M. & Telford, I.R.H. (1993). Fl. Australia Oceanic Islds. Convolvs Flora of Australia 50: 342-353. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Yamazaki, T. (1993). Fl. Japan Convolvulaceae Flora of Japan IIIa: 195-205. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi) Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
    • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Austin, D. F. (1982). Flora of Ecuador 15: 3-99. Botanical Institute, University of Göteborg, Riksmuseum, Stockholm.
    • Austin, D.F. & Cavalcante, P.B. (1982). Convolvuláceas da Amazônia Publicações Avulsas do Museo Goeldi 36: 1-134.
    • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental.
    • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
    • Austin, D.F. (1975). Convolvulaceae Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 62: 157-224.
    • Adams, C.D. in Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 601-614. University of the West Indies, Mona.
    • Sa'ad, F. (1967). The Convolvulus species of the Canary Islands, the Mediterranean region and the Near and Middle East Mededelingen van het Botanisch Museum en Herbarium van de Rijksuniversiteit te Utrecht 281: 1-288.
    • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
    • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
    • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
    • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Hill, A.W. & Sandwith, N. in Williams, R.O. (1953). Fl. Trinidad & Tobago Convolvs. Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(4): 210-240. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
    • O'Donell, C.A. (1941). Revision de las especies americanas de Lilloa 6: 467-554. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
    • Gagnepain & Courchet in H. Lecomte (1915). Flore Indo-Chine Convolvulaceae Flore Générale de l'indo-Chine 4: 228-313.
    • Baker, J.G. & A.B. Rendle in Thiselton-Dyer, W.T. et al. (eds.) (1905). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 62-206. Secretary of State for the Colonies.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China
    The Malesian Key Group (2010) Interactive Key to Seed Plants of Malesia and Indo-China (Version 2.0, 28 Jul 2010) The Nationaal Herbarium Nederland Leiden and The Royal Botanic Gardens Kew

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0