1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Panicum L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Cosmopolitan.

    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips And S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Annuals or perennials
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades rolled or flat, linear to ovate; ligule a short ciliate membranous rim
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, usually much branched but occasionally contracted about the primary branches
    Spikelets
    Spikelets usually spherical, ovate or oblong; glumes hyaline to membranous, usually the lower shorter than, and the upper as long as the spikelet; lower floret ♂ or barren, its lemma usually resembling the upper glume, with or without a palea; upper lemma ± as long as the spikelet, crustaceous, not crested, the margins inrolled and clasping only the edges of the palea
    Fruits
    Caryopsis ± ellipsoid, dorsally compressed.
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora Zambesiaca 10:3. 1989

    Spikelets
    Spikelets spherical, ovate, lanceolate or oblong.
    Glume
    Glumes hyaline to membranous, usually the inferior shorter than and the superior as long as the spikelet.
    Florets
    Inferior floret male or barren, its lemma usually resembling the superior glume, with or without a palea.
    Lemma
    Superior lemma as long as or shorter than the spikelet, crustaceous, the margins involute and clasping only the edges of the palea.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis more or less ellipsoid, dorsally compressed.
    Habit
    Annuals or perennials.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminae involute or flat, linear to ovate.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle, usually much branched but occasionally contracted about the primary branches.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (132), or perennial (340). Rhizomes absent (395), or short (42), or elongated (27). Stolons absent (452), or present (15). Culms erect (201/365), or geniculately ascending (103/365), or decumbent (93/365), or prostrate (12/365), or rambling (48/365), or arching (1/365), or leaning (4/365), or scandent (4/365); reed-like (1/112), or robust (25/112), or of moderate stature (2/112), or slender (74/112), or weak (14/112); 1-77.45-1550 cm long; spongy (5), or compressible (5), or firm (418), or wiry (30), or woody (7); without nodal roots (17/100), or with prop roots (2/100), or rooting from lower nodes (98/100). Culm-internodes similar in length (1/5), or shorter and closely spaced at top of culm (1/5), or unequal, the upper longer (1/5), or unequal, the lower longer (1/5), or alternately elongated and bunched (1/5); terete (27/42), or channelled (2/42), or elliptical in section (15/42). Culm-nodes constricted (23/30), or flush with internodes (1/30), or swollen (6/30). Lateral branches lacking (57/209), or sparse (53/209), or ample (110/209), or fastigiate (9/209), or suffrutescent (4/209). Leaves differentiated into sheath and blade (450), or without demarcation between sheath and blade (12), or with sheath almost obsolete (1). Leaf-sheath auricles absent (458), or erect (6). Ligule an eciliate membrane (58), or a ciliolate membrane (72), or a ciliate membrane (253), or a fringe of hairs (68), or absent (23). Leaf-blade base without a false petiole (449), or with a brief petiole-like connection to sheath (12), or with a false petiole (3). Leaf-blades persistent (459), or deciduous at the ligule (5); aciculate (3), or filiform (12), or linear (284), or lanceolate (215), or elliptic (5), or oblong (8), or ovate (25), or triangular (1); membranous (16), or herbaceous (435), or coriaceous (13); stiff (49), or firm (406), or flaccid (10). Leaf-blade midrib indistinct (9/33), or evident (6/33), or conspicuous (16/33), or widened (2/33). Leaf-blade venation without cross veins (444), or with obscure cross veins (6), or with distinct cross veins (17). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (14/14). Leaf-blade apex muticous (435), or pungent (30).
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence simple (462), or compound (1); fasciculate (1/1). Inflorescence a panicle (444), or composed of racemes (16), or comprising only a few spikelets (4); terminal (421), or terminal and axillary (43); not deciduous as a whole (458/462), or deciduous as a whole (4/462); subtended by an unspecialized leaf-sheath (461), or an inflated leaf-sheath (1), or a spatheole (1); exserted (440), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (32), or enclosed (1). Spatheole lanceolate (1/1). Peduncle persistent (461), or fracturing (2). Panicle open (417/442), or contracted (26/442), or spiciform (7/442), or capitate (1/442). Primary panicle branches not whorled (419/443), or whorled at lower nodes (22/443), or whorled at most nodes (8/443). Panicle axis bearing persistent branches (443/444), or deciduous branches (1/444). Racemes single (1/16), or borne along a central axis (16/16); appressed (1/16), or ascending (13/16), or spreading (1/16), or drooping (1/16); unilateral (13/14), or paucilateral (1/14); bearing 1-8 fertile spikelets on each (1/1). Central inflorescence axis unspecialized (15/16), or flattened (1/16). Rhachis angular (7/7). Spikelet packing crowded (2/16), or contiguous (14/16); 2 -rowed (1/1). Spikelets appressed (27/32), or ascending (1/32), or spreading (4/32); solitary (433), or in pairs (44), or in threes (2). Fertile spikelets sessile (4/462), or sessile and pedicelled (3/462), or pedicelled (456/462); 1 in the cluster (1/7), or 2 in the cluster (7/7), or 3 in the cluster (1/7). Pedicels filiform (31/47), or oblong (1/47), or clavate (15/47); tip oblique (1/21), or widened (6/21), or discoid (6/21), or cupuliform (8/21).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (461/462), or 2 basal sterile florets (1/462); 1 fertile florets (462), or 2 fertile florets (1); without rhachilla extension (459), or with a barren rhachilla extension (6). Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (52), or elliptic (175), or oblong (91), or ovate (166), or orbicular (24), or obovate (30), or oblanceolate (3); of unremarkable solid shape (461), or globose (2); laterally compressed (4), or dorsally compressed (459); symmetrical (450), or gibbous (9), or plano-convex (4); 0.7-2.732-9.2 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (460), or breaking up at maturity (1); deciduous from the base (457/460), or with the pedicel (1/460), or with accessory branch structures (3/460). Spikelet callus brief (462), or square (1). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (398), or elongated between glumes (64), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). Rhachilla elongation stout (1/1). Floret callus brief (457), or evident (6), or elongated (1); without wings (460), or winged (3); with lateral wings (3/3); truncate (1), or obtuse (462).
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets (461/462), or 2 basal sterile florets (1/462); 1 fertile florets (462), or 2 fertile florets (1); without rhachilla extension (459), or with a barren rhachilla extension (6). Spikelets linear (1), or lanceolate (52), or elliptic (175), or oblong (91), or ovate (166), or orbicular (24), or obovate (30), or oblanceolate (3); of unremarkable solid shape (461), or globose (2); laterally compressed (4), or dorsally compressed (459); symmetrical (450), or gibbous (9), or plano-convex (4); 0.7-2.732-9.2 mm long; persistent on plant (2), or falling entire (460), or breaking up at maturity (1); deciduous from the base (457/460), or with the pedicel (1/460), or with accessory branch structures (3/460). Spikelet callus brief (462), or square (1). Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (398), or elongated between glumes (64), or elongated below proximal fertile floret (2). Rhachilla elongation stout (1/1). Floret callus brief (457), or evident (6), or elongated (1); without wings (460), or winged (3); with lateral wings (3/3); truncate (1), or obtuse (462).
    Glume
    Glumes one the lower absent or obscure (1), or two (462); shorter than spikelet (63/462), or reaching apex of florets (394/462), or exceeding apex of florets (9/462); thinner than fertile lemma; parallel to lemmas (414), or recurved at apex (6), or gaping (48). Lower glume linear (1/462), or lanceolate (38/462), or elliptic (6/462), or oblong (13/462), or ovate (385/462), or orbicular (4/462), or oblate (25/462), or obovate (3/462); not clasping (16/60), or clasping (44/60); not gibbous (460/462), or gibbous (2/462); hyaline (16/462), or membranous (446/462), or herbaceous (1/462); without keels (456/460), or 1-keeled (4/460); 0-3-11 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent (107/462), or obscure (19/462), or distinct (352/462), or prominent (7/462), or thickened (2/462); without ribs (375/380), or ribbed (5/380). Lower glume surface smooth (447/462), or asperulous (7/462), or scabrous (6/462), or tuberculate (3/462); glabrous (408/462), or puberulous (10/462), or pubescent (30/462), or pilose (29/462), or villous (5/462), or hispid (1/462), or woolly (1/462); without hair tufts (462/462), or with an apical beard (1/462). Lower glume apex entire (458/462), or erose (1/462), or lobed (4/462); 3 -fid (2/2); emarginate (1/447), or truncate (16/447), or obtuse (106/447), or acute (290/447), or acuminate (90/447), or attenuate (1/447), or setaceously attenuate (1/447), or cuspidate (3/447); muticous (453/462), or mucronate (13/462), or awned (5/462). Upper glume lanceolate (24), or elliptic (91), or oblong (31), or ovate (322), or orbicular (3), or obovate (1); not gibbous (462), or gibbous (1); 0.8-1.355-2.5 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous (458), or herbaceous (4), or cartilaginous (1); with undifferentiated margins (460), or hyaline margins (3); without keels (458), or 1-keeled (5); wingless (462), or winged on margins (1); 3-7-57 -veined. Upper glume primary vein eciliate (462), or pubescent (1). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (458), or ribbed (5); without cross-veins (1/3), or transversely connected at apex (2/3), or with cross-veins (1/3). Upper glume surface smooth (436), or asperulous (15), or scabrous (6), or papillose (2), or tuberculate (4), or wrinkled (2), or rugose (1); glabrous (366), or puberulous (27), or pubescent (59), or pilose (39), or hirsute (2), or villous (8), or hispidulous (4), or hispid (2), or woolly (1); with simple hairs (123/136), or tubercle-based hairs (13/136); without hair tufts (462), or with an apical beard (2). Upper glume apex entire (459), or lobed (4); 3-4 -fid (1/2), or 5 -fid (2/2); emarginate (1/451), or truncate (1/451), or obtuse (97/451), or acute (288/451), or acuminate (85/451), or attenuate (2/451), or cuspidate (3/451), or laterally pinched (1/451); muticous (458), or mucronate (6), or awned (4); 1 -awned (4/4).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets male (172/462), or barren (308/462); with palea (323/447), or without significant palea (135/447). Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (23/462), or elliptic (105/462), or oblong (28/462), or ovate (313/462), or orbicular (3/462), or obovate (1/462); 0.95-1.116-1.3 length of fertile lemma; hyaline (2/462), or membranous (456/462), or chartaceous (1/462), or herbaceous (1/462), or scarious (1/462), or cartilaginous (1/462); 3-6-15 -veined; without ribs (460/462), or ribbed (2/462); without grooves (461/462), or sulcate (1/462); truncate (2/435), or obtuse (73/435), or acute (320/435), or acuminate (55/435), or attenuate (1/435), or cuspidate (2/435); muticous (459/462), or mucronate (4/462). Fertile lemma lanceolate (20), or elliptic (229), or oblong (174), or ovate (56), or orbicular (5), or obovate (13); without auricles (462), or thickened on margins at base (1); dorsally compressed (462/462); not gibbous (462), or gibbous (1); chartaceous (20), or cartilaginous (4), or coriaceous (10), or indurate (430); without keel (461/462), or keeled (1/462); wingless (462), or winged on margins (1); 3-4 -veined (2/36), or 5 -veined (17/36), or 6 -veined (3/36), or 7 -veined (20/36), or 8 -veined (1/36), or 9 -veined (3/36). Lemma lateral veins obscure (3/12), or distinct (7/12), or prominent (2/12). Lemma surface smooth (387), or granulose (5), or asperulous (2), or scaberulous (7), or scabrous (1), or papillose (29), or tuberculate (14), or striate (13), or reticulate (4), or punctate (3); unwrinkled (455), or rugulose (4), or rugose (4); glabrous (452), or puberulous (3), or pubescent (6), or pilose (3); with simple hairs (10/12), or clavate hairs (2/12); without hair tufts (462), or with basal hair tufts near margin (1). Lemma margins flat (1), or involute (455), or convolute (8); eciliate (455), or ciliate (5), or pubescent (2), or pilose (1). Lemma apex obtuse (176/342), or acute (137/342), or acuminate (10/342), or apiculate (24/342), or rostrate (2/342); without ornament (419), or laterally pinched (4), or with a little green crest (7), or with a green spot (1), or with a shallow excavation (1), or papillose (1), or scabrous (8), or pubescent (25), or woolly (2); muticous (458), or mucronate (5). Palea embraced by lemma (462), or reflexed at apex (1); not rolled (1), or involute (462); 1 length of lemma; membranous (1), or chartaceous (20), or cartilaginous (3), or coriaceous (10), or indurate (430). Palea surface glabrous (457), or pubescent (2), or pilose (3), or villous (1).
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2 (7/7); truncate (3/3). Anthers 2 (3/148), or 3 (146/148).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (181/181); ellipsoid (44/65), or oblong (8/65), or ovoid (12/65), or orbicular (1/65), or obovoid (5/65). Embryo 0.2-0.4095-0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (25/39), or elliptic (14/39).
    Distribution
    Europe (6), or Africa (175), or Temperate Asia (27), or Tropical Asia (42), or Australasia (40), or Pacific (26), or North America (108), or South America (198).
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual. Culms erect (1/1), or geniculately ascending (1/1); slender (1/1); 17-50.87-80 cm long. Lateral branches sparse (1/1). Ligule a ciliolate membrane. Leaf-blades linear (3), or lanceolate (1). Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (2/2).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open. Panicle axis bearing deciduous branches. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels tip cupuliform (2/2).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1), or ovate; dorsally compressed; 2-4.65-7.5 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes (2), or elongated below proximal fertile floret. Rhachilla elongation slender.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1), or ovate; dorsally compressed; 2-4.65-7.5 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated between glumes (2), or elongated below proximal fertile floret. Rhachilla elongation slender.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (3), or reaching apex of florets (1); thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate (1), or elliptic (1), or ovate; membranous; without keels; 3-4 -veined (1), or 5 -veined (2), or 6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (3). Lower glume surface smooth (3), or scabrous (1); glabrous (3), or pilose (1). Lower glume apex obtuse (1), or acute (3), or acuminate (1); muticous (3), or mucronate (1), or awned (1). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (2), or ovate (1); membranous; without keels; 5-6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (3), or 8 -veined (1), or 9 -veined (2), or 10-11 -veined (1). Upper glume lateral veins without ribs (2), or ribbed (2). Upper glume surface smooth (3), or scabrous (1); glabrous (3), or pilose (1); with tubercle-based hairs (1/1). Upper glume apex acute (1), or acuminate (3); muticous (3), or awned (2); 1 -awned (2/2).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate (3), or elliptic (1); membranous; 9 -veined (1/1); without ribs (3), or ribbed (1); acute (1/3), or acuminate (2/3); muticous (3), or awned (2). Fertile lemma elliptic; chartaceous (1), or indurate (3); without keel; 5-7 -veined (1/1). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse (2/2). Palea membranous (2), or chartaceous (1), or indurate (1).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (3/3).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with free brittle pericarp (1/1); dorsally compressed (1/1). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (3/3).
    Distribution
    Australasia.
    [GB]

    nonem

    Habit
    Annual (6), or perennial (3). Culms erect (5/6), or geniculately ascending (1/6), or decumbent (1/6); 5-40.5-100 cm long. Culm-internodes terete (1/1), or elliptical in section (1/1). Lateral branches lacking (1/4), or sparse (1/4), or ample (2/4). Ligule a fringe of hairs. Leaf-blade margins cartilaginous (1/1).
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle; terminal (5), or terminal and axillary (2); exserted (4), or embraced at base by subtending leaf (3). Panicle open (6), or contracted (2). Spikelets solitary, or in pairs (1). Fertile spikelets pedicelled; 1-2 in the cluster (1/1).
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (6), or oblong (2), or ovate (1), or oblanceolate (2); dorsally compressed; 2.075-4.416-6 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (2), or elongated between glumes (5). Floret callus evident; without wings (1), or winged (6); with free apical wings (6/6); truncate.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate (1), or elliptic (6), or oblong (2), or ovate (1), or oblanceolate (2); dorsally compressed; 2.075-4.416-6 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes brief up to lowest fertile floret (2), or elongated between glumes (5). Floret callus evident; without wings (1), or winged (6); with free apical wings (6/6); truncate.
    Glume
    Glumes shorter than spikelet (1), or reaching apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume elliptic (1), or ovate; membranous; without keels; 3-4 -veined (3), or 5 -veined, or 6-7 -veined (2). Lower glume surface smooth (6), or scabrous (1). Lower glume apex acute (5), or acuminate (2), or caudate (1). Upper glume lanceolate (2), or elliptic (4), or oblong (1), or ovate (3); membranous (6), or coriaceous (1); without keels; 5-6 -veined (1), or 7 -veined (6), or 9 -veined (1). Upper glume apex acute (5), or acuminate (3), or caudate (1).
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; with palea (2), or without significant palea (5). Lemma of lower sterile floret elliptic (4), or oblong (3), or ovate (3), or orbicular (1); membranous (6), or coriaceous (1); 5 -veined (3/6), or 7 -veined (3/6); acute (4), or acuminate (4), or caudate (1). Fertile lemma elliptic (5), or oblong (1), or ovate (4); chartaceous (1), or indurate (6); without keel; 5 -veined (1/3), or 7 -veined (2/3). Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex obtuse (6), or acute (3). Palea involute; 1 length of lemma; chartaceous (1), or indurate (6).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3 (4/4).
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp (2/2); oblong (1/1). Embryo 0.5 length of caryopsis. Hilum punctiform (1/1).
    Distribution
    Tropical Asia (1), or Australasia (6).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Afghanistan, Alabama, Albania, Alberta, Aldabra, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Arizona, Arkansas, Aruba, Assam, Bahamas, Baleares, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bermuda, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, British Columbia, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, California, Cambodia, Cameroon, Canary Is., Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, Chad, Chile Central, Chile South, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Connecticut, Corse, Costa Rica, Cuba, Cyprus, Delaware, District of Columbia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Aegean Is., East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, France, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Greece, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Gulf States, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, Honduras, Idaho, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Khabarovsk, Korea, Kriti, Kuril Is., Kuwait, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Madeira, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Manchuria, Manitoba, Marianas, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nevada, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Newfoundland, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oman, Ontario, Oregon, Pakistan, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Portugal, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Puerto Rico, Queensland, Québec, Rhode I., Rwanda, Réunion, Sardegna, Saskatchewan, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, Sicilia, Sierra Leone, Sinai, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South China Sea, South Dakota, Spain, Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Turkey, Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Uruguay, Utah, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Western Sahara, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Altay, Amur, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Buryatiya, Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Central European Rus, Chatham Is., Chita, Christmas I., Czechoslovakia, East European Russia, Germany, Great Britain, Hungary, Irkutsk, Kazakhstan, Kirgizstan, Krym, Mongolia, Netherlands, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Caucasus, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Poland, Romania, South European Russi, Sweden, Switzerland, Tadzhikistan, Turkey-in-Europe, Turkmenistan, Tuva, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Siberia

    Panicum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 11, 2011 Silva, J.M. [1809], Brazil K001078757
    Jun 1, 2001 Zapfack, L. [701], Cameroon K000107875
    Feb 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7690], Cameroon K000107953
    Harley, R.M. [2831], Brazil K001078746
    Harley, R.M. [54147], Brazil K001078785
    Harley, R.M. [10203], Brazil K001078779
    Stannard, B.L. [812], Brazil K001078755
    Krapovickas, A. [36881], Brazil K001078784
    Hassler, E. [8332], Paraguay K001078775
    Mesquita, A.L. [145], Brazil K001078772
    Giulietti, A.M. [877], Brazil K001078743
    Giulietti, A.M. [s.n.], Brazil K001078745
    Cordeiro, I. [CFCR810], Brazil K001078771
    Melo, E. [PCD1787], Brazil K001078740
    Arbo, M.M. [4620], Brazil K001078737
    Irwin, H.S. [6145], Brazil K001078761
    Irwin, H.S. [30380], Brazil K001078778
    Irwin, H.S. [6524], Brazil K001078765
    Eiten, G. [10684], Brazil K001078731
    Eiten, G. [6717], Brazil K001078774
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6060], Brazil K001078741
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [6060], Brazil K001078742
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [3772], Brazil K001078747
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2845], Brazil K001078748
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [2845], Brazil K001078749
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [9191], Brazil K001078763
    Longhi-Wagner, H.M. [9225], Brazil K001078764
    Ferreira, M.C. [1796], Brazil K001078739
    Ferreira, M.C. [PCD1888], Brazil K001078744
    Kubitzki, K. [79-127], Brazil K001078754
    Calderon, C.E. [2624], Brazil K001078752
    Swallen, J.R. [8126], Brazil K001078733
    Sendulsky, T. [1741], Brazil K001078769
    Sendulsky, T. [1349A], Brazil K001078766
    Sendulsky, T. [1741], Brazil K001078767
    Sendulsky, T. [1477], Brazil K001078768
    Folli, D.A. [2699], Brazil K001078734
    Smith, L.B. [6031], Brazil K001078776
    Nelson, B.W. [BN1523], Brazil K001078756
    Brooks, R.R. [TMEX443], Brazil K001078738
    Gardner, G. [5906], Brazil K001078781
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8683], Myanmar K001131214
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8694], Myanmar K001131281
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8696], Nepal K001131291
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8696], Myanmar K001131296
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8696], Myanmar K001131297
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8701] K001131306
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8701], Myanmar K001131307
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8703], Nepal K001131315
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8704], Nepal K001131316
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8706], Singapore K001131318
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8709], Singapore K001131325
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8718], Myanmar K001131369
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8718], Myanmar K001131370
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8720], Nepal K001131375
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8723], Myanmar K001131379
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8723], Myanmar K001131380
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8727], Myanmar K001131389
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8727], Myanmar K001131390
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8728], Nepal K001131391
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8733], Myanmar K001131414
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8735], Nepal K001131419
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8735], Myanmar K001131421
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8738], Malaysia K001131428
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8738], Malaysia K001131429
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8738], Myanmar K001131431
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8738], Myanmar K001131432
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8739], Myanmar K001131433
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8739], Myanmar K001131434
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8740], Myanmar K001131437
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8743], Myanmar K001131446
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8743], Myanmar K001131447
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8744], India K001131448
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8744], India K001131449
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8746], Myanmar K001131451
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 8746], Myanmar K001131452
    Porter, G. [Cat. no. 8696], Malaysia K001131294
    Porter, G. [Cat. no. 8696], Malaysia K001131295
    Porter, G. [Cat. no. 8697], Malaysia K001131298
    Porter, G. [Cat. no. 8707], Malaysia K001131319
    Porter, G. [Cat. no. 8709], Malaysia K001131323
    Porter, G. [Cat. no. 8719], Malaysia K001131373
    Luetzelburg, P. Von [22163], Brazil K001078786
    Cordeiro, J. [1721], Brazil K001078730
    Prance, G.T. [1295], Brazil K001078758
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8698], Myanmar K001131299
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8708], Myanmar K001131320
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8709] K001131322
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8709], Myanmar K001131324
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8736] K001131422
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8736] K001131423
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8737], Myanmar K001131426
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8740], Myanmar K001131438
    Gomez, W. [Cat. no. 8740], Myanmar K001131439
    Rambo, B. [36465], Brazil K001078780
    Dias-Melo, R. [270], Brazil K001078726
    Dias-Melo, R. [279], Brazil K001078727
    Dias-Melo, R. [444], Brazil K001078762
    Rosengurtt, B. [8893], Brazil K001078732
    Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [1884], Guyana K001078736
    Jansen-Jacobs, M.J. [1420], Guyana K001078753
    Hamilton, W.D. [144], Brazil K001078728
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [13319], Brazil K001078782
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8696] K001131292
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8699] K001131302
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8714] K001131351
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8719] K001131372
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8737] K001131424
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 8737] K001131425
    Hatschbach, G.G. [68055], Brazil K001078723
    Hatschbach, G.G. [33074], Brazil K001078724
    Hatschbach, G.G. [27768], Brazil K001078725
    Hatschbach, G.G. [70697], Brazil K001078729
    Hatschbach, G.G. [72016], Brazil K001078759
    Hatschbach, G.G. [74882], Brazil K001078750
    Hatschbach, G.G. [48267], Brazil K001078751
    Hatschbach, G.G. [49302], Brazil K001078783
    Hatschbach, G.G. [27768], Brazil K001078773
    Araujo, D.S.D. [5997], Brazil K001078760
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.] K001132769
    s.coll. [Cat. no. s.n.], Myanmar K001132768
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8684], India K001131215
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8684] K001131216
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8693] K001131280
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8696] K001131289
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8696] K001131290
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8696] K001131293
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8699], India K001131300
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8699], India K001131301
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8699] K001131303
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8700], India K001131304
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8700] K001131305
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8709] K001131321
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8713] K001131346
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8714] K001131347
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8714] K001131348
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8714], Bangladesh K001131349
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8714] K001131350
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8714] K001131352
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8719] K001131371
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8719] K001131374
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8721], India K001131376
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8722], India K001131377
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8724] K001131381
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8725], India K001131382
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8725], India K001131383
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8725], Bangladesh K001131384
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8726] K001131385
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8727] K001131386
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8727] K001131387
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8727], India K001131388
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8729] K001131392
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8729] K001131393
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8729] K001131394
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8729] K001131395
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8730] K001131396
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8730] K001131397
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8730] K001131398
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8730] K001131399
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8730], India K001131400
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8730], India K001131401
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8730] K001131402
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8731] K001131403
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8731] K001131404
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8731] K001131405
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8732] K001131406
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8732] K001131407
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8732] K001131408
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8732] K001131409
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8733] K001131410
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8733] K001131411
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8733] K001131412
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8733], India K001131413
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8734] K001131415
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8734] K001131416
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8734], India K001131417
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8734] K001131418
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8735] K001131420
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8738] K001131427
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8740] K001131435
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8740] K001131436
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8741] K001131440
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8742] K001131441
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8743] K001131442
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8743] K001131443
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8743] K001131444
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8743] K001131445
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8745] K001131450
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 8748] K001131457
    Christenhusz, M.J.M., Kamau, P., Mbale, M. [6624], Kenya K000696636
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8722], Myanmar K001131378
    Akkul, M. [Cat. no. 8738], Myanmar K001131430
    Dombrowski, L.T.D. [5865], Brazil K001078777
    Granville, J.-J. [12211], Brazil K001078735
    Granville, J.-J. [15083], French Guiana K001078770

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 55 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • F.T.A. 9: 638 (1920).
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5, 29 (1754)
    • Sp. Plant. 55 (1753)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 29 (1754).
    • Sp. PL: 55 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 29 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 55 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/