1. Family: Convolvulaceae Juss.
    1. Operculina Silva Manso

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

    Habit
    Large herbaceous twiners with stems, peduncles and petioles often winged
    Flowers
    Flowers usually large, in one- to few-flowered axillary cymes
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, large, often enlarged in fruit
    Corolla
    Corolla funnel-shaped or campanulate, white or yellow
    Pollen
    Pollen smooth
    Pistil
    Ovary 2-locular, each loculus with 2 ovules; style simple; stigma biglobular
    Fruits
    Capsule large, the outer layer splitting around the middle, the top part or lid separating from the lower part, and the inner layer bursting irregularly
    Seeds
    Seeds up to 4, large, pilose or glabrous, blackish.
    [FZ]

    Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

    Habit
    Large herbaceous twiners.
    Stem
    Stems, peduncles and petioles often winged.
    Leaves
    Leaves petioled; lamina entire, angular often cordate at the base.
    Flowers
    Flowers usually large, in one to few flowered axillary cymes.
    Bracts
    Bracts often large, caducous.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5, large, pergameneous to coriaceous, mostly glabrous, often ventricose, often enlarged in fruit and ultimately with an irregularly lacerate margin.
    Corolla
    Corolla broadly funnel-shaped or campanulate, white or yellow, glabrous or with the midpetaline bands hairy outside.
    Stamens
    Stamens 5, included, anthers large, often longitudinally twisted; pollen ellipsoid, smooth.
    Pistil
    Ovary bilocular, each loculus 2-ovuled; style simple; stigma biglobular.
    Fruits
    Capsule large, the outer layer splitting around the middle, the upper or lid separating from the lower part, and the inner layer bursting irregularly.
    Seeds
    Seeds up to 4, pilose or glabrous, blackish.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Pakistan

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cambodia, Caroline Is., China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Hawaii, India, Jawa, Kenya, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, Marquesas, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Niue, Northern Territory, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Pitcairn Is., Queensland, Samoa, Seychelles, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Vietnam, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ghana, Mauritius, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Togo

    Operculina Silva Manso appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Enum. Subst. Braz.: 16 (1836)

    Accepted by

    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Bianchini, R.S., Ferreira, P.P.A. in Forzza, R.C. et al. (2010). Convolvulaceae Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.
    • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
    • Thulin, M. et al. in Thulin, M. (ed.) (2006). Convolvulaceae Flora of Somalia 3: 221-258. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wagner, W.L. & D.H. Lorence in Wagner, W. L. & D. H. Lorence. (2002-ongoing). Fl. Marquesas CNV - April 2012 2002-. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Smithsonian Institution & National Tropical Bot. Garden.
    • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Austin, D.F. in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (1998). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 4: 377-424. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Yamazaki, T. (1993). Fl. Japan Convolvulaceae Flora of Japan IIIa: 195-205. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Austin, D. F. (1982). Flora of Ecuador 15: 3-99. Botanical Institute, University of Göteborg, Riksmuseum, Stockholm.
    • Austin, D.F. & Cavalcante, P.B. (1982). Convolvuláceas da Amazônia Publicações Avulsas do Museo Goeldi 36: 1-134.
    • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental.
    • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
    • Austin, D.F. (1975). Convolvulaceae Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 62: 157-224.
    • Sachet, M.-H. (1975). Fl. Marquesas Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 23: 27-34.
    • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
    • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
    • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Hill, A.W. & Sandwith, N. in Williams, R.O. (1953). Fl. Trinidad & Tobago Convolvs. Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(4): 210-240. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
    • Meisner, C.F. in Martius, C.F.P.von & auct. suc. (eds.) (1869). Convolvulaceae Flora Brasiliensis 7: 199-370.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • van Ooststr. in Blumea 3: 361 (1939), Fl. Males., ser. 1, 4: 454 (1953).
    • Enum. Subst. Brazil. 16 (1836)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Enum. Subst. Bras.: 16 (1836).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Enum. Subst. Bras. : 16 (1836)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0