1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Lotononis (DC.) Eckl. & Zeyh.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Balkan Peninsula to Turkey, Ethiopia to S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Annual or perennial herbs
    Leaves
    Leaves usually digitately 3-foliolate, with the lateral leaflets often much smaller than the terminal, rarely 1-foliolate
    Stipules
    Stipules minute or foliaceous, solitary or in pairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence terminal, but often leaf-opposed and appearing axillary, subsessile or pedunculate, racemose or subumbellate, 1–many-flowered; bracts and bracteoles inconspicuous
    Calyx
    Calyx-tube rarely membranous; lobes 5, the upper 4 united higher up than the lower lobe, which is often narrower
    Corolla
    Standard usually ovate or obovate, with a relatively short linear-oblong claw; wings sometimes much shorter than the keel; keel rounded at the apex
    Stamens
    Stamens all joined into a tube split along the upper side, 4 with long and 6 with short anthers
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile, with numerous ovules; style curved upwards; stigma small, capitate
    Fruits
    Pod oblong, acute or obtuse, slightly inflated
    Seeds
    Seeds usually numerous.
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, various authors. Flora Zambesiaca 3:7. 2003

    Habit
    Herbs.
    Leaves
    Leaves in Flora Zambesiaca area digitately 3-foliolate or lower ones occasionally 1-foliolate, elsewhere sometimes all 1-foliolate or up to 8-foliolate; stipules small or foliaceous, usually single at each node.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal or leaf-opposed, the flowers in racemes, heads, clusters or single; bract small to foliaceous, sometimes inserted on the pedicel; bracteoles small or more often lacking.
    Calyx
    Calyx usually with lateral and upper lobes joined higher on either side, sometimes (sect. Oxydium) with 5 subequal lobes.
    Corolla
    Standard predominantly yellow, or elsewhere sometimes white, pink or blue, hairy or glabrous outside; wings shorter or longer than the keel, often hairy, generally sculptured; keel with apex rounded, pointed or somewhat beaked, often hairy.
    Stamens
    Stamens in a sheath open on the upper side; anthers markedly dimorphic, 4 oblong to linear and basifixed, 5 ovate and dorsifixed, the carinal one intermediate.
    Pistil
    Ovary sessile to stipitate; style tapered, with a small stigma.
    Fruits
    Pods linear, oblong or ovate, flat or turgid, rarely folded and twisted, usually dehiscent, few–many-seeded.
    Seeds
    Seeds rounded to generally oblique-cordiform, smooth to finely tuberculate.
    [LOWO]

    Legumes of the World. Edited by G. Lewis, B. Schrire, B. MacKinder & M. Lock. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. (2005)

    Note

    The current state of knowledge of the Crotalarieae was reviewed by Van Wyk (1991a) and by Van Wyk & Schutte (1995a). The most conspicuous recent change has been the exclusion of the Argyrolobium group (six genera, i.e. Argyrolobium, Dichilus, Melolobium, Polhillia, Anarthrophyllum and Sellocharis), which belong in tribe Genisteae rather than in Crotalarieae, where they were previously placed (Polhill, 1981q: 399 –402). New insights into relationships within the tribe have come mainly from chemosystematic studies of alkaloids (summarised in Van Wyk & Verdoorn, 1990) and several recent generic monographs (see below).

    The Crotalarieae forms part of a monophyletic clade, the ‘core genistoids’ (Fig. 36) which also includes Genisteae, Podalyrieae, Thermopsideae, Brongniartieae, Euchresteae and Sophoreae sens. strict. (Crisp et al., 2000; Pennington et al., 2000a; Kajita et al., 2001). Crotalarieae appears to be sister to the Genisteae and both are sister to the Podalyrieae (Crisp et al., 2000; Wojciechowski et al., 2004). This clade is in turn sister to the Thermopsideae and Sophoreae sens. strict. (including Euchresteae).

    The Crotalarieae shares with the Podalyrieae the absence of a-pyridone alkaloids such as cytisine and anagyrine that are a typical feature of all other ‘core genistoid’ tribes. Despite a lack of defining characters, the monophyly of the tribe as circumscribed here is well supported by molecular evidence (Crisp et al., 2000; Wink & Mohamed, 2003) and by cladistic analyses of morphological, cytological and chemical characters (Van Wyk & Schutte, 1995a). The latter study suggested an early diversification of the genera with uniform anthers and lupanine-type esters of quinolizidine alkaloids (Pearsonia, Rothia and Robynsiophyton) followed by the poorly known Spartidium and then the so-called ‘Cape group of genera’ (Polhill, 1981q: 399–402), which now includes Lotononis and Crotalaria. Relationships between the seven genera of the ‘Cape group’ remains unresolved despite several recent molecular studies because sampling is still relatively poor. However, a basally branching position in the tribe of the ‘Cape group’, notably Lebeckia and Wiborgia — as considered by Polhill (1976, 1981q) — is now accepted here. The exclusion of the Argyrolobium group, based on morphological and chemical characters, is also strongly supported by DNA sequence data. Due to reticulate and overlapping patterns of character state distribution in the Crotalarieae sens. strict., generic delimitations are intricate and subject to misinterpretation. Several of the large and diverse genera appear to be either monophyletic or paraphyletic depending on the choice of characters. As currently circumscribed the tribe includes 11 genera and c. 1204 species (Fig. 37).

    Considerable infrageneric variation has been accommodated in 15 sections, most of which have convincing apomorphies to support their monophyly; the relationships between sections have been explored in a series of cladistic analyses of morphological, cytological and chemical characters (Van Wyk, 1991b)
    Habit
    Shrubs, shrublets, suffrutices (rarely geophytic), perennial or annual herbs
    Ecology
    In mediterranean shrubland (dry fynbos and renosterveld), desert, xerophytic scrubland and grassland; also seasonally dry tropical to subtropical forest and woodland, usually on sand and in rocky places, more rarely in heavy or calcareous soils
    Distribution
    Africa, mainly in southern Africa with a few extending to (often montane) tropical Africa (c. 145 spp.); c. 5 spp. Mediterranean (S Spain, Macaronesia and N Africa [Morocco]) to W Asia, Arabia and Pakistan
    [LOWO]
    Use
    Lotononis bainesii Baker is a widely cultivated livestock fodder and forage crop; due to their prominence in dry regions and disturbed places, several species are of ecological importance as soil improvers and in erosion control; other species are used for medicine and have potential as ornamentals; some species contain prunasin and other cyanogenic glycosides and have caused stock losses

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Bulgaria, Cape Provinces, East Aegean Is., Ethiopia, Free State, Greece, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Malawi, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Turkey, Uganda, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Transcaucasus

    Lotononis (DC.) Eckl. & Zeyh. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Stirton, C.H. [11641], South Africa 51423.000

    First published in Enum. Pl. Afric. Austral.: 176 (1836)

    Accepted by

    • Boatwright, J.S., Wink, M. & van Wyk, B.-E. (2011). The generic concept of Lotononis (Crotalarieae, Fabaceae): Reinstatement of the genera Euchlora, Leobordea and Listia and the new genus Ezoloba Taxon 60: 161-177.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • van Wyk, A synopsis of the genus Lotononis in Contrib. Bolus Herb., No.14: 1–292 (1991).
    • Enum. Pl. Afr.: 176 (1836) nom. conserv.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Enum. PI. Afr. Austr.: 176 (1836), nom. conserv .

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0