1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium filifolium (Miers) I.M.Johnst.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Chile (Atacama).

    [KBu]

    Luebert, F. 2013. A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9432-6

    Type
    Type: Chile, Región de Atacama, ‘Conception’ [dry valleys and hills between Huasco and Copiapó], [Sept. 1841], T. Bridges 1343 (lectotype BM [fragm. + photo GH], selected by Johnston (1928b: 32); isolectotypes A, E not seen (digital photograph), G, K [photo SGO 2263], P not seen [digital photograph, fragm. F 515812, photo MSB], W).
    Habit
    Erect shrubs, 0.3 – 1 m tall, profusely branched, with short branches, densely foliose to the apex
    Stem
    Stems and foliage glabrous, or papillose-tomentose on the younger parts, glutinous
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, grouped in fascicles of up to 10 leaves, sessile, linear, 2 –11 (− 13.5) × 0.5 – 1.5 mm, terete; lamina glabrous, with inconspicuous glandular trichomes, green, margin entire, base and apex obtuse, veins inconspicuous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, elongate, dichotomously branched, to c. 5 cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile, alternate, erect, aromatic. Calyx cylindrical, pale green; calyx lobes oblong or obovate, fused only at the base, sparsely strigose outside, glabrous within, 1 – 2.5 × 0.5 – 1.5 mm, free portion 1 – 2.5 mm long, apex obtuse
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, hispid outside, white with yellow throat; limb horizontally spreading, 4 – 9 mm wide, lobes rounded; tube 2 – 3 times as long as the calyx, 2 – 6 mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens included or exserted; filaments adnate to petals; anthers oblong, glabrous, base cordate, apex obtuse, 0.7 – 1.2 mm long, generally located above the apex of the stigmatic head or shortly overlapping it
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, subglobose, c. 0.7 mm diam., with a basal nectar ring
    Style
    Style glabrous, 0 – 0.05 mm long, shorter than the stigmatic head
    Stigma
    Stigmatic head conic, glabrous, 0.4 – 0.9 × 0.8 – 1 mm
    Fruits
    Fruits dry, ellipsoid, rugose, glabrous, light brown, c. 1.6 × 1.3 mm diam., falling apart at maturity into two 2-seeded nutlets, each c. 1.6 × 0.8 mm diam.
    Pollen
    Exine thickness c. 1 μm Colpiferous sides slightly convex (from Ricardi 2281 in Marticorena 1968) Pollen prolate, 22 – 26 × 13 – 15.5 μm Endoapertures 3 – 3.5 μm diam., circular or slightly lalongate
    Distribution
    Coastal areas of the provinces of Huasco and Copiapó (Región de Atacama, Chile), 27°24' – 28°36'S. Its northern limit is in the surroundings of Totoral (Map 3).
    Ecology
    Coastal plains, slopes and ravines of the fog-free area, between 20 and 530 m. It also occurs some kilometres inland. Scarce, but sometimes is locally dominant. It forms part of a vegetation dominated by Atriplex clivicola I. M. Johnst. (Amaranthaceae), Balbisia peduncularis D. Don (Ledocarpaceae), Eulychnia breviflora Phil. (Cactaceae), Nolana werdermannii I. M. Johnst. (Solanaceae), Oxalis virgosa Molina (Oxalidaceae).
    Conservation
    Vulnerable (VU), criterion B2(b,c). The area of occupancy was estimated to be less than 2,000 km2 associated with a projected decline in its area, which is subject to extreme inter-annual fluctuations of climate that affects the number of mature individuals (Luebert 2010).
    Phenology

    September to November, or throughout the year at locally humid spots.

    Vernacular
    Palo negro (Spanish).
    Note

    Förther (1998: 229) erroneously quotes the material of Bridges 1343 at BM as the holotype, although Miers (1868: 131) had indicated two specimens (BM, K), one of which (BM) was later chosen by Johnston (1928b: 32) as the lectotype. The collection Bridges 1343 (G) was mentioned by de Candolle (1845: 553) among the syntypes of Heliotropium chenopodiaceum, but was distinguished by Miers (1868) as a different species. The collection was made by Bridges in 1841 (Johnston 1928a) without H. Cuming, as indicated by Förther (1998: 229, ‘[& Cumming]’ (sic)), because Cuming was not in Chile that year (Dance 1980).

    The epithet filifolium refers to its thread-like leaves.

    [KBu]
    Use
    Natural and semi-synthetic compounds of the resin of Heliotropium filifolium have shown anti-viral properties (Torres et al. 2002; Modak et al. 2004a, 2010) as well as inhibitory effects on the complement system (Larghi et al. 2009), with potential pharmacological applications. Riedemann et al. (2006) suggest its potential use as an ornamental.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chile North

    Heliotropium filifolium (Miers) I.M.Johnst. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Contr. Gray Herb. 81: 32 (1928)

    Accepted by

    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Förther (1998: 195)
    • I. M. Johnst. (Johnston 1928b: 32)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0