1. Family: Apiaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Centella L.
      1. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Caucasus, Tropical & Subtropical Old World to New Zealand and SW. Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Umbelliferae, C.C. Townsend. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Procumbent perennial herb, with a slender to stout taproot, rooting at the nodes, up to at least 1 m. in length but often less.
    Stem
    Stem terete, finely striate, green or suffused purplish.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or in groups of up to 6 on very short lateral shoots, thin to more commonly rather leathery in texture, very variable in size, separated by long slender internodes up to as much as 16 cm. long, the lamina roundish to reniform with a narrow to very wide basal sinus, ± 0.8–9 cm. wide and 0.8–5.5 cm. long from apex to petiole, ± regularly bluntly crenate or the teeth sharply mucronate all round or towards the base, palmately nerved with the nerves branched at ± halfway to the margin, secondary venation increasingly faint, surfaces glabrous or very faintly pilose; sheaths narrowly oblong, ± 3–12 mm., striate, membranous margined; petiole very variable in length, 3 mm. to 30 cm., glabrous or more commonly softly white-pilose at least below the lamina.
    Inflorescences
    Umbels subcapitate, 1–5 together on slender, thinly to densely pilose peduncles 3 mm. to 4 cm. long, which ± reflex in fruit.
    Flowers
    Flowers 1–7 in each umbel; pedicels very short (at most 1.5 mm.) and pilose, or obsolete; involucre of 2 broadly ovate, membranous-margined bracts 1.5–5 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Petals roundish to broadly obovate, ± 1 mm., greenish to purplish red, often with minute whitish hairs on the central dorsal surface.
    Fruits
    Fruit very strongly laterally compressed, oblate-rounded, ± 3–4 mm., glabrous or with fine, rather long white hairs; primary and secondary ribs narrowly prominent, with ± anastomosing veins between; stylopodia low and rounded, finally indistinct; styles ± divergent, ± 0.5–0.75 mm.
    Figures
    Fig. 3.
    Habitat
    Most commonly in damp grassland along rivers and by swamps and lakes, sometimes sprawling over rocks, occasionally aquatic or in deep mud; also found in forest clearings, and at higher levels among Sphagnum; near sea-level to 3480 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 widely distributed in the tropical regions of the world, extending into some subtropical regions
    [FWTA]

    Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A perennial creeping plant, rooting at the nodes
    Flowers
    Flowers purplish
    Ecology
    In damp grassy places.
    [FZ]

    Umbelliferae, J. F. M. Cannon. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Creeping herb, rooting at the nodes, but sometimes forming a large taproot.
    Stem
    Stem terete, with shallow grooves, sometimes purplish.
    Leaves
    Leaves solitary or in groups of up to 5, pubescent or glabrous; lamina 1–7 cm. wide, reniform to almost orbicular, with a deep basal sinus; margin crenate, glabrous or with scattered hairs on upper part of petiole (petiole sometimes densely hairy when young).
    Inflorescences
    Umbels subcapitate; peduncles 1·5–5 cm. long, glabrous or pubescent, usually much shorter than the subtending petiole.
    Flowers
    Flowers 2–8, hermaphrodite, with an involucre of 2 ovate, membranous, persistent bracts. Pedicels slender or obsolete; petals dark crimson to greenish-white, orbicular with a slender inflexed point. Calyx teeth and stylopodium obsolete; styles short, ± divergent.
    Fruits
    Fruit 3·5× 3 mm., orbicular to ellipsoid, brown at maturity, deeply constricted at the commissure and flattened laterally, primary ribs prominent when ripe, secondary ribs ± evident; carpophore entire.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Chatham Is., China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, Congo, East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Iran, Ivory Coast, Japan, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New South Wales, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Solomon Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Transcaucasus, Uganda, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ascension, Chagos Archipelago, Colombia, Cook Is., Hawaii, Niue, Norfolk Is., Seychelles, Society Is., St.Helena, Tristan da Cunha

    Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 1, 2007 Savinierre, de la E. [63], Indonesia K000224481
    Sep 24, 2005 Giulietti, A.M. [1897], Bahia K000036510
    May 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [9453], Cameroon K000008489
    May 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [7244], Cameroon K000008490
    May 1, 2003 Etuge, M. [1845], Cameroon K000008491
    Dec 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [8542], Cameroon K000338804
    Dec 1, 2000 Munyenyembe, P. [899], Cameroon K000338805
    Mar 11, 2000 Colenso, J.W. [s.n.], New Zealand K000686115
    Mar 1, 1956 Coombe, D.E. [Dec 200], Cameroon K000051044
    Jan 1, 1954 Maitland, T.D. [218], Cameroon K000051041
    Thomas, D.W. [5024], Cameroon K000051043
    Bleher [576/65], Brazil K001130416
    Reitz [13107], Brazil K001130413
    Irwin, H.S. [12048], Brazil K001130409
    Irwin, H.S. [2217], Brazil K001130411
    Irwin, H.S. [30563], Brazil K001130414
    Moura, O.T. [567], Brazil K001130410
    Bernoulli [2736], Guatemala K001134189
    Jacob de Cordemoy [62] K000310278
    s.coll. [876], Tasmania K000686110
    Gunn, R. [876], Tasmania K000686108
    Gunn, R. [876], Tasmania K000686109
    Skvortzov, B. [207], Brazil K001130412
    Daramola, B. O. [FHI 41091], Cameroon K000051042
    Gentley, P.H. [1094], Belize K001134190
    von Tuerckheim, H. [426], Guatemala K001134188
    Blechez [H3290], Brazil K001130415
    Drummond, J. [104], Western Australia Neosciadium glochidiatum K000686117
    Drummond, J. [105], Western Australia Neosciadium glochidiatum K000686116
    Drummond, J. [247], Western Australia Neosciadium glochidiatum K000686118
    Jan 1, 1924 Schlechter, F.R.R. [2854], South Africa Centella coriacea K000310280 paratype
    Scott Elliot, G.F. [1973], Madagascar Centella tussilaginifolia K000310274
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 560], Myanmar Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111278 Unknown type material
    Jack, W. [Cat. no. 560], Malaysia Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111276 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 560] Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111277 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 560] Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111279 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 560], India Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111280 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 560], India Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111281 Unknown type material
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 560] Hydrocotyle asiatica K001111282 Unknown type material

    First published in C.F.P.von Martius & auct. suc. (eds.), Fl. Bras. 11(1): 287 (1879)

    Accepted by

    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Van Wyk, B.-E., Tilney, P.M. & Magee, A.R. (2013). African Apiaceae: a synopsis of the Apiaceae/Umbelliferae of Sub-Saharan Africa and Madagascar: 1- 317. Briza Academic Books, Pretoria.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Singh, M. & Ali, S.J. (2008). A study on aquatic Angiosperms of district Mau (East U.P.) Journal of East African Natural History 32: 877-890.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Townsend, C.C. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Umbelliferae: 1-127.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut Fl. Sen. 179.
    • F.W.T.A., ed. 1, 1: 522
    • Chev. Bot. 303.
    • in Mart. Fl. Bras. 11, 1: 287, t. 78, fig 1: (1878)
    • Hydrocotyle asiatica Linn. (1753) —F.T.A. 3: 6
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Wiriadinata, H., Girmansyah, D., Hunter, J.M., Hoover, W.S. & Kartawinata, K. (2013). Floristic study of West Sumbawa, Indonesia Reinwardtia 13: 391-404.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Barua, K.N. & Khatry, P.K. (2009). Alien forest weeds in upper Brahmaputra valler and hill zones of Assam Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 414-422.
    • Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. Gremmen, N. & Halbertsma, R.L. (2009). Alien plants and their impact on Tristan da Cunha 2: 1-307. Overseas Territories Environment Programme (OTEP).
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2005). Flora of China 14: 1-581. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Hedberg, I., Edwards, S. & Nemomissa, S. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 4(1): 1-352. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Orchard, A.E. (ed.) (1994). Oceanic Islands 1 Flora of Australia 49: 1-681. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Hancock, I.R. & Henderson, C.P. (1988). Flora of the Solomon Islands Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 1-203.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    • Christopherson, E. (1935). Flowering Plants of Samoa Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 128: 1-221.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Cannon in Flora Zambesiaca 4: 562 (1978).
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 351 (1974).
    • Cannon in Consp. Fl. Angol. 4: 339 (1970).
    • E. Lind & A. Tallantire, Some Common Flowering Plants of Uganda p. 100 (1962).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 637 (1959).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 360 (1952).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 697 (1948).
    • Urb. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 11(1): 287, t. 78/1 (1879).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
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