1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium longistylum Phil.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Chile (Atacama to Valparaiso).

    [KBu]

    Luebert, F. 2013. A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9432-6

    Type
    Type: Chile, Región de Atacama, Prov. Huasco, Carrizal Bajo, Dec. 1871, T. King s.n. (lectotype SGO 54363 [photo F, G, GH, MSB, NY, US], selected by Förther (1998: 205); isolectotypes GH [fragm.], K [photo SGO 2265], SGO 42221 [photo GH, MSB]).
    Habit
    Erect shrubs, 0.4 – 1.2 m tall, with ascending branches, densely foliose to the base of the inflorescence
    Stem
    Stems and foliage finely strigose or glabrous, glutinous
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, solitary or grouped in fascicles of up to 12 leaves, sessile, linear to linear-elliptic, 12 – 62 × 1 – 6 (− 7) mm; lamina adaxially glabrous, sparsely pubescent abaxially, dark green, margin entire, revolute, base attenuate, apex obtuse, with only the main vein conspicuous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, elongate, dichotomously branched, to c. 10 cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile, alternate, erect, aromatic. Calyx cylindrical, green or greyish-green; calyx lobes linear, fused only at the base, glutinous, with ciliated margins, strigose outside, glabrous within, 3 – 6.5 × 0.5 – 1 mm, free portion 3.5 – 6 mm long, apex acute
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, sparsely strigose, dull white with yellow throat; limb horizontally spreading, 7.5 – 12.5 mm wide, lobes rounded; tube longer than the calyx, 6 – 8.5 mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens included or exserted at late anthesis; filaments adnate to petals; anthers oblong-lanceolate, glabrous, base cordate, apex acute, c. 1 – 1.2 mm long, overlapping the stigmatic head
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, subglobose, 0.3 – 0.8 mm diam., with a basal nectar ring
    Style
    Style glabrous, c. 1.1 – 2 mm long, longer than the stigmatic head
    Stigma
    Stigmatic head conic, elongated, bilobate, c. 0.8 – 1.2 × 0.7 mm
    Fruits
    Fruits dry, ellipsoid, rugose, glabrous, light brown or cream, c. 3.5 × 2 mm diam., falling apart at maturity into two 2-seeded nutlets, c. 2 × 2 mm diam.
    Pollen
    Pollen prolate, 21.4 – 25.1 × 16.5 – 19.3 μm (from Ackermann 518, BSB)
    Distribution
    Endemic to the coastal areas or the provinces of Copiapó and Huasco (Región de Atacama, Chile), between 27°43'S and 28°22'S (Map 11).
    Ecology
    Sandy plains, coastal rocks and ravines, always near the coast, 5 – 400 m. Usually scarce and rarely dominant, in a shrubby vegetation dominated by Atriplex mucronata (Amaranthaceae), Eulychnia breviflora (Cacataceae), Heliotropium sinuatum (Heliotropiaceae) and Oxalis virgosa (Oxalidaceae).
    Conservation
    Endangered (EN), criterion B2 (a,b,c). The reduced projected area of occupancy of this species is associated with an extremely fragmented distribution of populations, a predicted decline in its area of occupancy (Luebert 2010), in a zone subject to interannual climatic fluctuations that directly affect the number of mature individuals.
    Phenology

    September to October.

    Note

    This species is closest to Heliotropium stenophyllum, from which it differs in its larger leaves and flowers, as well as in its style longer than the stigmatic head (vs style shorter than or as long as the stigmatic head in H. stenophyllum). H. longistylum is distributed north of the northernmost populations of H. stenophyllum (Map 11). Aberrant, small individuals of H. longistylum with strigose leaves can be confounded with H. floridum, but it can be distinguished from the latter in its glutinous foliage (vs non-glutinous in H. floridum). The possibility of hybridisation between H. longistylum and H. floridum cannot be ruled out, as they grow in local parapatry at some localities (e.g., Carrizal Bajo). Both species fall in an unresolved polytomous group in the phylogeny of section Cochranea (Luebert & Wen 2008).

    The epithet longistylum refers to its long style.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chile Central, Chile North

    Heliotropium longistylum Phil. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2008 s.coll. [33], Chile K000583541 isotype

    First published in Anales Univ. Chile 43: 515 (1873)

    Accepted by

    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Förther (1998: 205)
    • Johnston (1928b: 34)
    • Reiche (1907: 2401910: 198)
    • (Philippi 1873: 515)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0