1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium philippianum I.M.Johnst.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is N. Chile.

    [KBu]

    Luebert, F. 2013. A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9432-6

    Type
    Type: Chile, Región de Antofagasta, Prov. Antofagasta, Vicinity of Paposo, hill directly back of Punta Grande, 29 Nov. 1925, I. M. Johnston 5233 (holotype GH; isotypes E not seen (digital photograph), K [photo SGO 2267], US 1495296).
    Habit
    Erect or subscandent shrub, 0.6 – 1.5 (− 2) m tall, with ascending branches, densely foliose to the base of the inflorescence
    Stem
    Stems and foliage strigose
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, solitary or grouped in fascicles of up to 8 leaves, sessile, linear-spathulate, linear-elliptic or elliptic, 5 – 30 × 1 – 6 mm; lamina strigose on both sides, green or greyish-green, margin entire, revolute, base attenuate, apex acute or obtuse, with the main vein conspicuous and the secondary veins sometimes visible
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, elongate, dichotomously branched, congested, to c. 5 cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or shortly (< 1 mm) pedicellate, alternate, erect, aromatic. Calyx cylindrical, green or brownish-green; calyx lobes linear, free, strigose outside, glabrous or strigose within, (1.5 –) 3.5 – 5 × 0.1 – 1 (− 2) mm, free portion 3.5 – 5 mm long, apex acute
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, sparsely strigose, white with orange or yellow throat; limb horizontally spreading, 5.5 – 9 mm wide, lobes rounded; tube longer than the calyx, 4 – 7.5 mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens included or exserted at late anthesis; filaments adnate to petals; anthers oblong-lanceolate, glabrous, base cordate, apex acute, c. 1 – 1.5 mm long, above the apex of or overlapping the stigmatic head
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, subglobose, c. 0.6 mm diam., with a basal nectar ring
    Style
    Style glabrous, c. 1.8 – 2.5 mm long, longer than the stigmatic head
    Stigma
    Stigmatic head conic, elongated, bilobate, c. 1.5 – 2 × 0.7 mm
    Fruits
    Fruits dry, ellipsoid, smooth or rugose, glabrous, brown, c. 2 × 1.5 mm diam., falling apart at maturity into two 2-seeded nutlets, c. 1 × 1.5 mm diam.
    Pollen
    Pollen prolate, c. 20.5 – 22.1 × 10.6 – 12.5 μm (from Luebert et al-2124, BSB)
    Distribution
    Endemic to the coastal range of the area between Paposo and Blanco Encalada (province of Antofagasta, Región de Antofagasta, Chile), between 24°26'S and 25°6'S (Map 14).
    Ecology
    Gravelly and rocky hillsides and gravelly stream-ways of the fog zone, never dominant. It forms part of the coastal scrub typically dominated by Euphorbia lactiflua (Euphorbiaceae) and Eulychnia iquiquensis (Cactaceae) (Johnston 1929; Luebert & Pliscoff 2006).
    Conservation
    Critically endangered (CR), according to the criterion of extent of occurrence (B1(a,c), IUCN 2001). Populations are severely fragmented due to the presence of unsuitable areas out of the fog zone, occurrence of landslides and roads. The zone is subject to extreme interannual climatic fluctuations that cause the death of mature individuals during dry periods. This species is distributed in an area that bears priority for biodiversity conservation in Chile, but so far no protected area has been officially established (Pliscoff & Fuentes-Castillo 2011). Current and historical threats are mostly goat grazing and trampling associated with human settlements and mining, but human population density in the area and the accessibility is very low (Paposo, the largest village in the area, has a stable population of c. 300 people).
    Phenology

    September to November.

    Note

    The epithet philippianum honours Rodulfo A. Philippi, the first collector of the species.

    Finger & Teillier (2010) provide an illustration of a flowering branch. This species is morphologically similar and probably closely related to Heliotropium floridum, H. linariifolium and H. eremogenum. See discussion under the two former species. From H. eremogenum, this species differs in its generally longer leaves, erect habit (vs decumbent habit in H. eremogenum) and more southerly geographic range (Map 14).

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chile North

    Heliotropium philippianum I.M.Johnst. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 29, 1925 s.coll. [5233], Chile K000583542

    First published in Contr. Gray Herb. 81: 36 (1928)

    Accepted by

    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Förther (1998: 212)
    • (Johnston 1928b: 36)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0