1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium sinuatum (Miers) I.M.Johnst.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is N. Chile (to Coquimbo).

    [KBu]

    Luebert, F. 2013. A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9432-6

    Type
    Type: Chile, ‘Coquimbo’, T. Bridges s.n. (lectotype BM [photo GH], selected by Johnston (1928b: 27); possible isolectotypes BM, P not seen [digital photograph]).
    Habit
    Erect shrubs, 0.5 – 1.5 (− 2.6) m tall, profusely branched, densely foliose to the apex
    Stem
    Stems and foliage strongly glutinous
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, solitary or grouped in fascicles of up to 25 leaves, sessile, linear-oblong to linear spathulate, 9 – 65 × 1 – 7 mm; lamina glutinous, sparsely strigose, dark-green or dark brownish-green, margin sinuate, revolute, base attenuated, apex acute, with the main and secondary veins conspicuous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, elongate, dichotomously branched, to c. 5 cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate (pedicel up to 2 mm), alternate, erect, aromatic. Calyx cylindrical, pale green; calyx lobes linear, fused only at the base or free, hirsute and glandulous outside, sparsely strigose within, 2 – 4.5 × 0.5 – 0.7 mm, free portion 0.5 – 3.5 mm long, apex obtuse
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, hispid outside, white with yellow throat; limb horizontally spreading, 5 – 10 mm wide, lobes rounded; tube longer than the calyx, 3.5 – 8.5 mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens included or exserted at late anthesis; filaments adnate to petals; anthers oblong, glabrous, base cordate, apex obtuse, c. 1 mm long, overlapping the stigmatic head
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, subglobose, c. 0.5 mm diam., with a basal nectar ring
    Style
    Style glabrous, c. 1 mm long, as long as or slightly shorter than the stigmatic head
    Stigma
    Stigmatic head conic, glabrous, c. 0.8 – 1 × 0.4 – 0.6 mm
    Fruits
    Fruits dry, ellipsoid, rugose, light orange brown or cream, c. 2.5 × 1.5 mm diam., falling apart at maturity into two 2-seeded nutlets, each c. 1.2 × 2 mm diam.
    Pollen
    Exine thickness c. 1 μm, slightly thicker at the poles (from Ricardi & Marticorena 3882 in Marticorena 1968) Pollen prolate, 24.5 – 27.5 × 14.5 – 16.5 μm Endoapertures c. 3.5 μm diam. in polar direction and contracted at the centre
    Distribution
    Coast and interior of the province of Elqui (Región de Coquimbo) and provinces of Huasco and Copiapó (Región de Atacama), Chile, 27°40' – 29°39'S, (Map 5). The assertion of Johnston (1928b: 34) that there are no reliable records of the species in the province of Coquimbo, where the plant occurs in sympatry with what Johnston (1928b) called Heliotropium huascoense, is certainly no longer valid. The locality in Zöllner 4472 (CONC) from the province of Arica is certainly erroneously given.
    Ecology
    Coastal ravines and rocky hillsides, between sea level and 1500 m, where it can be dominant in desert scrubs together with Adesmia argentea Gill. ex Hook., Balbisia peduncularis, Frankenia chilensis C. Presl, Nolana albescens (Phil.) I. M. Johnst., Oxalis virgosa, Pleocarphus revolutus D. Don, among others. This species can occur in local sympatry with Heliotropium filifolium, H. floridum, H. longistylum, H. megalanthum and H. stenophyllum.
    Conservation
    Least concern (LC), see Luebert (2010).
    Phenology

    September to November, but throughout the year provided sufficient moisture.

    Vernacular
    Palo negro, monte negro (Spanish).
    Note

    This species is unique in Heliotropium sect. Cochranea, for its strongly rugose, sinuate leaves, with non forked secondary veins and for its geographical distribution, where no other species of section Cochranea with rugose leaves occurs. However, Reiche (1907, 1910) considered it in a broader sense under the name H. rugosum Phil., a synonym of H. taltalense. H. taltalense was distinguished from the present species by subsequent authors (Johnston 1928b; Förther 1998; Luebert & Pinto 2004), which is followed here. Apart from its geographical distribution, H. sinuatum is clearly distinguished from H. taltalense in that the latter has forked secondary veins and more pubescent leaves. Both are resinous, erect, shrubs with sinuate and rugose leaves.

    The epithet sinuatum refers to its sinuate leaves.

    [KBu]
    Use
    Chemical compounds of the resinous exudates of Heliotropium sinuatum have shown to have antibacterial (Modak et al. 2004b), as well as antioxidant (Modak et al. 2003) properties. Riedemann et al. (2006) suggest its potential use as an ornamental.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chile Central, Chile North

    Heliotropium sinuatum (Miers) I.M.Johnst. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Bridges [1342], Chile K000583551 isotype
    s.coll. [s.n.], Chile K000583550
    Lobb, W. [442], Chile K000583552 holotype

    First published in Contr. Gray Herb. 81: 26 (1928)

    Accepted by

    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Förther (1998: 219)
    • (Johnston 1928b: 26)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0