1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium taltalense (Phil.) I.M.Johnst.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is N. Chile.

    [KBu]

    Luebert, F. 2013. A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9432-6

    Type
    Type: Chile, Región de Antofagasta, Prov. Antofagasta, prope Taltal, Oct. 1889, L. Darapsky 30 (holotype SGO 54432 [fragm. GH, photo F, GH, MSB, NY]).
    Habit
    Erect shrubs, 0.65 – 1.0 (− 1.8) m tall, profusely branched, densely foliose to the apex
    Stem
    Stems and foliage glutinous
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, solitary or grouped in fascicles of up to 20 leaves, sessile, linear-oblong to linear-lanceolate, 12 – 45 (− 50) × 1 – 5.5 mm; lamina glutinous, pubescent on both sides, sparsely strigose on the adaxial surface, tomentose on the abaxial surface, dark-green or dark greyish-green, margin sinuate, revolute, base attenuated, apex obtuse, with the main and secondary veins conspicuous, the later forked toward the margin
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, elongate, dichotomously branched, to c. 8 cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or shortly pedicellate, alternate, erect, aromatic. Calyx cylindrical, pale green; calyx lobes linear, free or fused only at the base, villous outside, glabrous or sparsely hirsute within, 2 – 5 × 0.5 – 1 mm, free portion 1.5 – 5 mm long, apex acute
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, hispid outside, dull white with yellow throat; limb horizontally spreading, 3.5 – 7 mm wide, lobes rounded; tube longer than the calyx, 3.5 – 7.5 mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens included or exserted at late anthesis; filaments adnate to petals; anthers linear-lanceolate, glabrous, base cordate, apex acute, 1.5 – 2 mm long, overlapping the stigmatic head
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, subglobose, c. 0.7 mm diam., with a basal nectar ring
    Style
    Style glabrous, 0.5 – 1.8 mm long, as long as or shorter than the stigmatic head
    Stigma
    Stigmatic head conic, glabrous, 1 – 1.8 × 0.5 – 0.7 mm
    Fruits
    Fruits dry, ellipsoid, rugose, glabrous, light brown, c. 1.5 – 3.5 × 1 – 2 mm diam., falling apart at maturity into two 2-seeded nutlets, each c. 1 – 2 × 1 – 2 mm diam.
    Pollen
    Pollen prolate, 29.5 – 31 × 18 – 18.5 μm Endoapertures 3 × 5 μm diam., contracted at the centre Exine thickness c. 1.3 μm, slightly thicker at the poles (from Ricardi 2614 in Marticorena 1968)
    Distribution
    Coastal hills of the province of Antofagasta (Región de Antofagasta), Chile, most common between the localities of Miguel Díaz and Taltal, 24°30' – 25°29'S (Map 6).
    Ecology
    Dry hillsides of the coastal Cordillera, usually outside and above the fog zone (Johnston 1929), 50 – 1060 m. It forms part of the coastal desert scrub (Luebert & Pliscoff 2006), where it is usually rare, but it can be locally dominant in the vegetation (Reiche 1911), along with Balbisia peduncularis (Ledocarpaceae), Copiapoa tenebrosa F. Ritter (Cactaceae), Euphorbia lactiflua Phil. (Euphorbiaceae), Nolana divaricata I. M. Johnst., Nolana incana I. M. Johnst. (both Solanaceae), Ophryosporus triangularis Meyen (Asteraceae), Tetragonia maritima (Aizoaceae), among others.
    Conservation
    Vulnerable (VU), criterion B2(b,c). The reduced projected area of occupancy of this species is associated with a predicted decline in its area, in a zone subject to extreme interannual climatic fluctuations that directly affect the number of mature individuals (Luebert 2010).
    Phenology

    September to November.

    Note

    The epithet taltalense refers to Taltal, the type locality.

    This species is a distinct inhabitant of the coastal hills of the areas around Taltal and Paposo. According to Johnston (1928b), Heliotropium krauseanum could be considered a variety of the present species, but they differ in flower size and indument and have different geographic ranges. Phylogenetic analyses (Luebert & Wen 2008) resolve H. taltalense and H. krauseanum in different grades. On the other hand, Reiche (1907, 1910) considered H. sinuatum as falling into the variability of H. taltalense (treated as H. rugosum Phil.). Although the latter two species are phylogenetically closely related (Luebert & Wen 2008), I concur with Johnston (1928b) in treating them apart (Luebert & Pinto 2004, see discussion under H. sinuatum).

    Vernacular
    Palo negro, monte negro (Spanish).
    [KBu]
    Use
    Recently Modak et al. (2009) reported antoxidant activity of the resinous exudate. It is locally used (Matancilla) as an infusion against stomach ache. Riedemann et al. (2006) suggest its potential use as an ornamental.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chile North

    Heliotropium taltalense (Phil.) I.M.Johnst. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Contr. Gray Herb. 81: 27 (1928)

    Accepted by

    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Förther (1998: 223)
    • Marticorena (1968: 47)
    • (Johnston 1928b: 27)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0