1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Desmodium Desv.
      1. Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Cultivated, Lake Victoria regional transition zone; grasslands, Somalia-Masai grasslands, Zambezian grassland, Sudanian grasslands
    Habit
    Annual/Perennial, Not climbing, Herb/Shrub
    Vernacular
    Acaba Pangola, Alfalfilla De Llano, Amor Seco, Creeping Tick Trefoil, Estacal, Frijolillo, Heen-undupiyali, Hierba Cuartillo, Kodiadiamborona, Konikoni, Kudaliya, Marlomin, Petit Oseille Marron, Plati, Pti Tref, Threeflower Beggarweed, Tourlas, Trefle Bla
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Prostrate creeping annual or perennial herb, often branched from the base or rooting at the nodes (in habit and aspect suggesting a species of Trifolium); stem terete and striate to angular, moderately to densely long white pilose.
    Leaves
    Leaves (1–)3-foliolate; stipules stramineous, obliquely ovate, 2–5 mm. long, 1–1.5 mm. wide, long-acuminate, truncate at base, somewhat pilose on outer surface, long-persistent; petiole long-pilose and minutely uncinulate-puberulent, 4–9 mm. long; leaf-rhachis similar, 1–2.5 mm. long; terminal leaflets obovate, retuse at apex, cuneate to acute at base, essentially glabrous and reticulate above, usually abundantly pilose beneath or only so on midrib and margins, the terminal 4.5–12 mm. long, 4–12 mm. wide, the lateral leaflets similar or more nearly elliptic and a little smaller.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, usually composed of 3–4 pairs of flowers; primary bracts ovate-attenuate, 2–3.5 mm. long, 0.7–1.5 mm. wide, each subtending 2 pedicels, long-persistent; secondary bracts, if present, depauperate; pedicels slender, usually long-pilose, 6.5–11 mm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers blue, purple, reddish purple or pink.
    Calyx
    Calyx 2-lipped, the upper bifid lobe more or less equalling the teeth of the lower lobe in length, each of the 5 teeth with a distinctive dark streak along its midrib and all of them long white pilose, 2.5–3.5 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Corolla equalling or exceeding the calyx; standard ± orbicular but long-clawed, to 4.5 mm. long and 2–3 mm. wide; wings ± oblong and long-clawed, equalling the standard in length, 1 mm. wide; keel-petals scythe-shaped, long-clawed, also equalling standard, 1–1.3 mm. wide.
    Fruits
    Fruit sessile, up to 5-articled, the upper suture straight or slightly reflexedly curved, the lower indented between the articles; articles ± quadrate, 2.3–4 mm. long and wide, curved below, separating from each other but not dehiscing, glabrous to abundantly uncinate-pubescent.
    Seeds
    Seed quadrangular to nearly orbicular in outline, 1.5–2 mm. long, 1.5–1.8 mm. wide.
    Habitat
    Grassland, and a weed in cultivated ground by roadsides and sandy places forming small to large mats; often cited as growing in lawns and considered a satisfactory plant for such purpose; near sea-level to 1800 m.
    Distribution
    pantropical, extending northward into southern U.S.A. K5 K7 P T2 T3 T4 T6 U3 U4 Z
    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:6. 2000

    Habit
    Annual (or ?perennial) herb, often forming dense mats.
    Stem
    Stems prostrate, sometimes rooting at the nodes, much branched, 8–19 cm long, covered with spreading bristly yellow-brown hairs.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3-foliolate; leaflets 4–14(20) × 4–12(15) mm, obovate-oblong, obovate or obcordate, rounded to emarginate at the apex, rounded to cuneate at the base, glabrous above, pilose beneath with scattered white hairs, with a raised reticulation of veins above; petiole 4–11(15) mm long; rhachis 1–5 mm long; petiolules 0.5–1 mm long; stipules 3.5–6 × 1–1.5 mm, obliquely lanceolate, ± glabrous.
    Flowers
    Flowers 1–3 in leaf-axils (or, fide Schubert, inflorescences short, mostly under 6–8-flowered); pedicels 5–10 mm long, pilose or glabrous; primary bracts 2–3.5 × 1–1.5 mm; secondary bracts mostly absent.
    Calyx
    Calyx with bristly hairs, or pilose with long white hairs; tube 0.8 mm long; lobes 1–1.5 mm long, narrowly triangular-lanceolate.
    Corolla
    Standard blue, purple, reddish or pink, up to 4.5 × 2–3 mm, ± round, but long-clawed.
    Fruits
    Fruit 1.2–1.8 cm long, of 2–5 articles, held eccentrically on the pedicel which is continuous with the straight suture; other margin constricted between the articles; articles 2–3.5 mm long and wide, glabrous or uncinulate-pubescent and with a strong reticulation of raised nerves.
    Seeds
    Seeds brown, finely speckled with black, 2.1 × 1.5 × 0.8 mm, reniform; hilum small eccentric.
    [FWTA]

    Papilionaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Stems much-branched, prostrate, creeping and forming dense mats
    Flowers
    Flowers pink or purple.
    [ILDIS]
    Use
    Domestic, Environmental, Forage, Medicine, Weed

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Bolivia, Borneo, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kazan-retto, Kenya, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, New Guinea, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panamá, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Vietnam, Wallis-Futuna Is., West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Christmas I., Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., French Guiana, Guyana, Hawaii, Nauru, New Caledonia, Nicobar Is., Niue, Northern Territory, Queensland, Seychelles, Society Is., Suriname, Western Australia

    Desmodium triflorum (L.) DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2010 s.coll. [778], India K000555870 holotype
    Jan 1, 2010 s.coll. [777], India K000555871 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 2010 s.coll. [779], India K000555872 Unknown type material
    Mar 19, 2007 Hatschbach, G. [45094], Brazil K000931692
    Jan 1, 2000 Coradin, L. [7868], Ceará K000206441
    May 1, 1995 Santos, T.S. [4508], Bahia K000205905
    Oct 1, 1990 Hage, J.L. [1861], Bahia K000205903
    Jul 1, 1990 Hage, J.L. [1861], Bahia K000205904
    Jan 1, 1961 Gossweiler, J. [8804], Angola K001307151
    Lankester, C.H. [s.n.], Brazil K000931691
    Bidgood, S. [5881], Tanzania K000468544
    Coradin, L. [5890], Piauí K000205906
    Ridley [25], Pernambuco K000205907
    Maas, P.J.M. [312], Brazil K000931690
    Hohenacker, R.F. [243], India K000555873
    Miers, J. [3658], Brazil K000931694
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5734], Nepal K001121940
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 5734], Malaysia K001121941
    Prance, G.T. [11156], Brazil K000931689
    De Silva, F. [Cat. no. 5734] K001121942
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5734] K001121931
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5734], India K001121932
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5734], India K001121933
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5734] K001121934
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5734] K001121935
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5734], India K001121936
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5734], India K001121937
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5734], India K001121938
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 5734] K001121939

    First published in Prodr. 2: 334 (1825)

    Accepted by

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    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Pires Lima, L.C., de Queiroz, L.P., de Azevedo Tozzi, A.M.G & Lewis, G.P. (2014). A taxonomic revision of Desmodium (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) in Brazil Phytotaxa 169: 1-119.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Olvera-Luna, A.R., Gama-López, S. & Delgado-Salinas, A. (2012). Flora del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán 107: 1-42. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónomica de México.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
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    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
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    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
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    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Japan IIb: 1-550. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
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    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
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    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Verdcourt, B. (2000). Flora Zambesiaca 3(6): 1-175. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Govaerts, R. (2000). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS D: 1-30141.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Berhaut, J. (1976). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 5: 1-658. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.
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    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Schubert Fl. Congo Belge 5: 187.
    • Bak. f. Leg. Trop. Afr. 2: 327
    • Chev. Bot. 191
    • F.T.A. 2: 166
    • Prod. 2: 334 (1825)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Pires Lima, L.C., de Queiroz, L.P., de Azevedo Tozzi, A.M.G & Lewis, G.P. (2014). A taxonomic revision of Desmodium (Leguminosae, Papilionoideae) in Brazil Phytotaxa 169: 1-119.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Olvera-Luna, A.R., Gama-López, S. & Delgado-Salinas, A. (2012). Flora del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán 107: 1-42. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónomica de México.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Miller, A.G. & Morris, M. (2004). Ethnoflora of Soqotra Archipelago: 1-759. The Royal Botanic Garden, Edinburgh.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Du Puy, D.J., Labat, N.-N., Rabevohitra, R., Villiers, J.-F., Bosser, J. & Moat, J. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar: 1-737. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Verdcourt, B. (2000). Flora Zambesiaca 3(6): 1-175. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: 1-246. New Yourk Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Cirilo, N. & Proctor, G.R. (1994). Vascular plants of the Caribbean Swan islands of Honduras Brenesia 41-42: 73-80.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Polhill, R.M. (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 80: 1-235. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Berhaut, J. (1976). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 5: 1-658. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
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