1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Canavalia DC.
      1. Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FZ]

    Leguminosae, B. Mackinder, R. Pasquet, R. Polhill and B. Verdcourt. Flora Zambesiaca 3:5. 2001

    Habit
    Usually an erect bushy annual crop plant 1–2 m tall, but can become a perennial climber to 10 m.
    Stem
    Stems glabrous to appressed pubescent.
    Leaflets
    Leaflets 6–20 × 3–12 cm, elliptic or ovate-elliptic, subacute to shortly acuminate, glabrescent to sparsely pubscent on both surfaces; petiole 2–11 cm long; stipules soon deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 6–40 cm long, long-pedunculate; pedicels 2–5 mm long; bracteoles c. 2 mm long, obtuse.
    Calyx
    Calyx sparsely pubescent; tube 6–7 mm long; upper lip 4–5 mm long, truncate.
    Corolla
    Standard rose to purple, 2.7–3 cm long.
    Fruits
    Pods 15–35 × 3–3.5 cm, linear-oblong, each valve with a sutural rib and an extra rib just below this, pubescent, glabrescent.
    Seeds
    Seeds white with a brownish mark round the hilum, 14–21 × 10–15 × 7–11 mm; hilum 5.5–9 mm long.
    [FWTA]

    Papilionaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Climbing on fences and trees
    Flowers
    Flowers rose, mauve or white with a red base.
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Cultigen not known in the wild
    Ecology
    Africa: Cultivated
    Habit
    Annual/Perennial, Climbing/Not climbing, Herb/Shrub
    Vernacular
    Awara, Bara Sem, Bu-wal-awara, Cocorico, Dolique, Garde Place, Gros Pois, Haba Criolla, Horse Bean, Horsebean, Jack Bean, Jackbean, Jangli Sem, Kadsambal, Overlook Bean, Pipi, Pois de Sabre, Pois Maldioc, Pois Sabre, Sabre-Bean, Sufed Kadsumbal, Sword Bea
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Plant usually grown as an annual but capable of becoming a perennial climber, 0·6–0·9 m. long.
    Stem
    Stems glabrous or adpressed pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaflets elliptic or ovate-elliptic, 5·7–20 cm. long, 3·2–11·5 cm. wide, obtuse, sub-acute or shortly acuminate, ± cuneate, glabrescent or sparsely pubescent on both surfaces; venation raised and reticulate on both surfaces; petiole 2·3–11 cm. long; rhachis 1–3·5 cm. long; petiolules 1–11 mm. long, densely pubescent; stipules soon deciduous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 5–12 cm. long above a peduncle 10–34 cm. long; pedicels 2–5 mm. long; bracteoles 2 mm. long, obtuse.
    Calyx
    Calyx sparsely pubescent; tube 6–7 mm. long; upper lip 5 mm. long, truncate.
    Corolla
    Standard rose to purple, rounded, 2·75 cm. long, emarginate.
    Fruits
    Pods linear-oblong, 15–35 cm. long, 3–3·5 cm. wide, each valve with a sutural rib and an additional rib just below it.
    Seeds
    Seeds white with a brownish mark near the hilum, oblong, compressed, longest dimension 1·45–2·1 cm., shorter dimension 1–1·5 cm., thickness 0·7–1 cm.; hilum 5·5–9 mm. long.
    Habitat
    Cultivated (more widely than the above records suggest) up to 1800 m. and sometimes seen as an escape
    Distribution
    K4 K6 K7 T1 T3 T4 T7 Z a food plant probably developed by prehistoric American Indians now widely cultivated throughout the tropics as a cover crop or as a green manure

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Guyana, Texas

    Native to:

    Alabama, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, Georgia, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Oklahoma, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Florida, French Guiana, Gabon, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Illinois, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Malaya, Maldives, Mali, Maluku, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nauru, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Queensland, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Texas, Togo, Tonga, Vanuatu, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Canavalia ensiformis (L.) DC. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 1971 Irwin, H.S. [13180], Brazil K000930146
    Jan 1, 1962 Wight, R. [750] K000900302

    First published in Prodr. 2: 404 (1825)

    Accepted by

    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Moteetee, A.N. (2016). Canavalia (Phaseoleae, Fabaceae) species in South Africa: naturalised and indigenous South African Journal of Botany 103: 6-16.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mackinder, B., Pasquet, R., Polhill, R. & Verdcourt, B. (2001). Flora Zambesiaca 3(5): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Bak. f. Leg. Trop. Afr. 2: 384.
    • Chev. Bot. 196
    • —F.T.A. 2: 190
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Lepschi, B. & Monro, A. (Project Coordinators) (2014). Australian Plant Census (APC) Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria. http://www.anbg.gov.au/chah/apc/index.html.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • de la Estrella, M., Cabezas, F.J., Aedo, C. & Velayos, M. (2010). The Papilionoideae (Leguminosae) of Equatorial Guinea (Annobón, Bioko and Río Muni) Folia Geobotanica 45: 1-57.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2010). Flora of China 10: 1-642. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mackinder, B., Pasquet, R., Polhill, R. & Verdcourt, B. (2001). Flora Zambesiaca 3(5): 1-261. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Isely, D. (1998). Native and Naturalized Leguminosae (Fabaceae) of the United States: 1-1007. Monte L. Bean Life Science Museum. Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Lee, W.T. (1996). Lineamenta Florae Koreae: 1-1688. Soul T'ukpyolsi: Ak'ademi Sojok.
    • Thaman, R.R., Fosberg, F.R., Manner, H.I. & Hassall, D.C. (1994). The Flora of Nauru Atoll Research Bulletin 392: 1-223.
    • Lock, J.M. & Heald, J. (1994). Legumes of Indo-China a checck-list: 1-164. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    • Guillaumin, A. (1948). Compendium de la Flore Phanérogamique des Nouvelles Hébrides Annales de l'Institut Botanico-Geologique de Marseille, VI, 5-6: 1-56.
    • Standley, P.C. & Steyermark, J.A. (1946). Flora of Guatemala Fieldiana Botany New Series 24(5): 1-502. Field Museum of Natural History.
    • S.Calderon & P.C.Standley (1944). Lista Preliminar de las plantas de El Salvador, ed. 2: 1-450. Ediciones culturales de la universidad de El Salvador.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Sauer in Brittonia 16: 142 (1964).
    • Hepper in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 574 (1958).
    • Robyns in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 6: 145, fig. 5/A (1954).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 166 (1949).
    • Bak. f., Leguminosae of Tropical Africa: 384 (1929).
    • Bak. in Flora of Tropical Africa 2: 190 (1871).
    • DC., Prodr. 2: 404 (1825).
    International Legume Database and Information Service
    • Kumar, S. & Sane PV (2003). Legumes of South Asia: a check-list. RBG Kew.
    • Du Puy, D. J. et al. (2002). The Leguminosae of Madagascar. RBG Kew.
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    • Maxwell, R. H. (1991). In: Dassanayake, M. D. & Fosberg, F. R. (Eds.) A revised handbook
    • Bernal, H. Y. & Jimenez, L. C. (1990). El Haba Criolla-Canavalia ensiformis
    • Polhill, R, M. (1990). Legumineuses. In: Flore des Mascareignes, Vol 80. J. Bosser et a
    • Hotta, M et al (1989). Sekai Yuhyou-shokubutu(Useful Pls. of World) Heibonsha. Tokyo
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    • Terrell, E. E. (1977). Checklist of Names for 3, 000 Vas. Pl... Agric. Handbook No. 505
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    • Sauer, J. (1964). Brittonia 16(2) :106-181 Revision of Canavalia
    • Haines, H. H. (1922). The Botany of Bihar & Orissa, Part 3. London.
    • Gamble, J. S. (1918). Flora of the Presidency of Madras, Vol. 1. (Parts 2-3) 1918-19
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0