1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Trichodesma R.Br.
      1. Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm.f.) R.Br.

        This species is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa and Yemen..

    [FTEA]

    Boraginaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Perennial, less often annual, erect and usually branched herb or subshrubby herb 0.3–1.5(–2.1) m. tall from a taproot; stem ± woody at the base, densely pubescent and scabrid with tubercle-based hairs 1–2.5 mm. long.
    Leaves
    Upper leaves sessile, alternate, oblong to oblong-lanceolate, 2–12.5(–18) cm. long, 0.6–3.2(–5.5) cm. wide, narrowed to the apex, rounded to subcordate at the base, discolorous, scabrid with tubercle-based hairs above, the tubercles ringed with cystolith-cells, rough beneath, densely pubescent to grey-tomentose with tubercle-based hairs on the nerves; lower leaves opposite or subopposite, similar but larger, up to 16 cm. long, 5 cm. wide with a petiole 0.2–1 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers drooping, in lax terminal many-flowered cymes; bracts similar to the leaves, 1.2–3.5 cm. long, 0.3–1 cm. wide, often cordate at the base; pedicels reddish, slender, 0.5–3.5 cm. long, with both short and long hairs.
    Calyx
    Calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, 7–10 mm. long, 3.2–3.5 mm. wide, enlarging in fruit to 1.6–2 cm. long, acute to acuminate at the apex, pubescent inside, grey-tomentose and with intermingled long tubercle-based hairs particularly on the midnerve and margins outside.
    Corolla
    Corolla pale to deep blue with white or pink to purple centre, with a dark reddish purple spot at the base of each lobe, or lobes white along mid-area and with blue outer areas and with reddish purple area below where the two blue areas join; tube funnel-shaped, 4–5 mm. long, glabrous outside, inside at the base on both sides of anther-insertions with cushions of scales; lobes 5–6, broadly ovate, 4–4.5 mm. long, 3.8–6 mm. wide, with an abrupt narrowly triangular acute twisted acumen 2.5–3 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamens sessile; anthers lanceolate, thecae 2.5 mm. long, with a tuft of hairs at the base and connective-appendages as long as the thecae or up to 4 mm., twisted together.
    Ovary
    Ovary 1.5–2 mm. diameter, glabrous, 4-lobed; style 6–8 mm. long, with obscurely subglobose stigma.
    Fruits
    Nutlets 4, grey marbled brown (? sometimes black), compressed ovoid, 4 mm. long, 3.2 mm. wide, the external face slightly convex, shining; internal face 3-angled, rugose and tuberculate.
    Figures
    Figs. 26; 27/1, p. 96; 28/1, p. 98.
    Habitat
    Grassland, Commiphora, Grewia, etc., bushland, a common weed in old and new cultivations and a pioneer on disturbed ground, on both well-drained red loam and marshy ground on black cotton soil; 7–1710 m.
    Distribution
    K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U1
    [FZ]

    Boraginaceae, E. S. Martins (Trichodesma by R. K. Brummit). Flora Zambesiaca 7:4. 1990

    Habit
    Annual with a tap root, or perhaps occasionally a short-lived perennial with a somewhat woody stock, with erect stems 0.3–1.5(2.0) cm. high, with ascending branches in the upper part; stems clothed with short spreading hairs interspersed with coarse tuberculate setae, or occasionally only with the tuberculate setae.
    Leaves
    Leaves (3)5–12(15) x 1–3(4) cm., narrowly elliptic, cuneate or occasionally rounded at the base, usually acute at the apex, sessile or subsessile, opposite or the uppermost alternate, the upper surface covered with tuberculate setae and sometimes with smaller hairs between them, the lower surface with tuberculate setae on the major veins and usually with a dense covering of smaller spreading or appressed hairs between them.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence 1–5 cm. long at flowering, elongating to up to 14 cm. in fruit, many-flowered, terminal on main and lateral branches, bracteate for most or all their length, the bracts ovate to lanceolate and rounded or subcordate at the base; pedicels 1–3 cm., densely clothed with conspicuous flexuous spreading hairs up to 2 mm. long and often also with minute spreading hairs.
    Calyx
    Sepals 7–10 x 2–3.5 mm. at flowering, enlarging to up to 20 x 6 mm. in fruit, ovate to lanceolate, rounded at the base, acute at the apex, densely clothed with long appressed or ascending hairs with those on the midrib and margins usually tending to be setose and more strongly tuberculate than the others.
    Corolla
    Corolla 7–9 mm. long, slightly shorter than to slightly longer than the sepals, the lobes broadly ovate-acuminate; lobes pale blue to lilac or pinkish, the tube often whitish between the lobes and with red to purple markings at its base.
    Fruits
    Fruit comprising four nutlets, falling separately to leave a pyramidal gynobase with four strongly concave sides, each with a more or less winged margin, and a persistent terminal style; nutlets 4–4.5 x 2.5–3.3 x 1–1.5 mm., compressed-ovoid, smooth and shiny and usually mottled with grey and brown on the outer surface, rugose on the inner surface.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Burundi, Comoros, Ethiopia, India, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Philippines, Rwanda, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Fiji, Mauritius, Rodrigues, Réunion, Windward Is.

    Trichodesma zeylanicum (Burm.f.) R.Br. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 1, 2009 Mwachala, G. [1284], Kenya K000614868
    McWhirter, J. [37], Madagascar 32162.000
    Schimper [625], Ethiopia K000418949 isosyntype
    Schimper [1025], Ethiopia K000418950
    Kotschy [542], Ethiopia K000418951
    Kotschy [542], Ethiopia K000418952
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 935] K001110346
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 935] K001110347
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 935], India K001110348
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 935] K001110349
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 935] K001110350
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 935] K001110351
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 935] K001110352
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 935] K001110353
    Christenhusz, M.J.M., Kamau, P., Mbale, M. [6678], Kenya K000696616

    First published in Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holland.: 496 (1810)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Lekhak, M.M. & Yadav, S.R. (2012). Herbacious vegetation of threatened high altitude lateritic plateau ecosystems of Western Ghats, southwestern Maharashtra, India Rheedea 22: 39-61.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Taton, A. (1971). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Boraginaceae: 1-82. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Lekhak, M.M. & Yadav, S.R. (2012). Herbacious vegetation of threatened high altitude lateritic plateau ecosystems of Western Ghats, southwestern Maharashtra, India Rheedea 22: 39-61.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Masharabu, T., Bigendako, M.J., Lejoly, J., Nkengurutse, J., Noret, N., Bizuru, E. & Bogaert, J. (2010). Etude analytique de la flore et de la végétation du Parc National de la Ruvubu, Burundi International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4: 834-856.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Autrey, J.C., Bosser, J. & Ferguson, I.K. (eds.) (2005). Flore des Mascareignes 121-126: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Boraginaceae: 1-124.
    • Smith, A.C. (1991). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 1-626. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Launert, E. & Pope, G.V. (eds.) (1990). Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 1-114. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1985). Flora du Rwanda 3: 1-729. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Taton, A. (1971). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Boraginaceae: 1-82. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Brummitt in Flora Zambesiaca 7(4): 95 (1990).
    • Kabuye & Agnew in A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 520 (1974).
    • Taton, Flore du Congo Belge, du Ruanda et du Burundi, Borag.: 37, map 12 (1971).
    • Ivens, E. Afr. Weeds: 83, fig. 40 (1967).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 780 (1962).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 99 (1956).
    • Brand in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 252 (78): 40, fig. 4/D–E (1921).
    • Gürke & Vaupel in Wissenschaftliche Ergebnisse der Deutschen Zentral-Afrika-Expedition 1907-1908, 2 (Botanik) p. 280 (1911).
    • Bak. & Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 4(2): 51 (1905).
    • Hook. in Bot. Mag. 80, t. 4820 (1854).
    • A. Rich., Tent. Fl. Abyss. 2: 91 (1850).
    • A.DC., Prodr. 10: 172 (1846).
    • R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl: 496 (1810).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0