1. Family: Boraginaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Heliotropium Tourn. ex L.
      1. Heliotropium floridum Clos

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Chile (Atacama, Coquimbo).

    [KBu]

    Luebert, F. 2013. A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae). Kew Bulletin 68: 1. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-013-9432-6

    Type
    Type: Chile, ad Coquimbo, 1839, C. Gay 1182 (holotype G-DC [photo F neg. no. 7769: F, GH, NY, US, photo SGO 67284]; isotypes GH, P not seen [digital photograph, fragm. F 515902, F 970065, photo MSB]) probable isotypes [Chili, Gay (1834 – 1842)] G, [Chili Gay] K, P not seen [digital photograph, photo MSB]).
    Habit
    Erect shrubs, 0.15 – 0.8 (− 1) m tall, with ascending branches, densely foliose to the base of the inflorescence
    Stem
    Stems and foliage strigose
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, solitary or grouped in fascicles of up to 13 leaves, sessile, succulent linear to linear-spathulate, 6.5 – 30 (− 40) × 1 – 9.5 (− 11) mm; lamina strigose, green or greyish-green, margin entire, revolute, base attenuate, apex obtuse, with only the main vein conspicuous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, elongate, dichotomously branched, congested, to c. 6 (− 9) cm long
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile or shortly (< 1 mm) pedicellate, alternate, erect
    Calyx
    Calyx cylindrical, green or brownish-green; calyx lobes linear, fused only at the base or free, strigose on both sides, 2.5 – 5.5 × 0.5 – 1.5 mm, free portion 2 – 5.5 mm long, apex acute
    Corolla
    Corolla infundibuliform, sparsely strigose, dull white with yellow to orange throat, becoming bluish at late anthesis; limb horizontally spreading, 5.5 – 11.5 mm wide, lobes rounded; tube longer than the calyx, 5 – 9 mm long
    Stamens
    Stamens included or exserted at late anthesis; filaments adnate to petals; anthers oblong-lanceolate, glabrous, base cordate, apex acute, c. 1.2 – 1.5 mm long, overlapping the stigmatic head
    Ovary
    Ovary glabrous, subglobose, 0.4 – 0.6 mm diam., with a basal nectar ring
    Style
    Style glabrous, c. 1.5 – 2 mm long, longer than the stigmatic head
    Stigma
    Stigmatic head conic, elongate, bilobate, c. 0.7 – 1 × 0.7 mm
    Fruits
    Fruits dry, ellipsoid, rugose, glabrous, brown, c. 2.5 × 1.5 mm diam., falling apart at maturity into two 2-seeded nutlets, c. 1.5 × 1.5 mm diam. Figs 1, 2Q and 3P.
    Distribution
    Coastal range of the provinces of Chañaral, Copiapó, Huasco (Región de Atacama) and Elqui (Región de Coquimbo), Chile, between 26°2'S and 29°15'S (Map 12).
    Ecology
    Coastal dunes, rocky hills and sandy plains, 0 – 270 m. In the sandy plains the vegetation is usually a scrub with columnar cacti, where Heliotropium floridum can be dominant together with Atriplex clivicola (Amaranthaceae) and Eulychnia breviflora (Cactaceae). In the coastal dunes it can also be dominant together with Chuquiraga ulicina (Hook. & Arn.) Hook. & Arn. (Asteraceae) and Cristaria glaucophylla Cav. (Malvaceae).
    Conservation
    Least concern (LC), see Luebert (2010).
    Phenology

    September to November.

    Note

    The epithet floridum refers to its congested inflorescence.

    This species might be locally confounded with Heliotropium longistylum and H. megalanthum (see discussion under these species). In herbaria it is frequently confounded with H. linariifolium. The latter has orange flowers and decumbent habit (vs white flowers and erect habit in H. floridum), but these characters are difficult to see in herbarium specimens. Both species overlap their geographic areas in the coastal range between the towns of Caldera and Chañaral, and material coming from that area is usually difficult to distinguish in herbarium specimens, unless there is indication of flower colour or habit.

    Heliotropium floridum can also be confounded with H. philippianum, with which it does not overlap in geographic range. H. philippianum is distributed from Paposo (c. 25°S) northwards, while H. floridum occurs from Chañaral (c. 26°S) southwards. H. philippianum is a shrub usually taller than 0.6 m, while H. floridum is almost always shorter. Both species were recovered in an unresolved clade in the phylogeny of section Cochranea (Luebert & Wen 2008).

    [KBu]
    Use
    Riedemann et al. (2006) suggest its potential use as an ornamental.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Chile North

    Heliotropium floridum Clos appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    s.coll. [s.n.], Chile K000583538 isotype
    Brigdes [1341], Chile K000583540 syntype
    Jan 1, 2008 Gay, C. [s.n.], Chile Heliophytum floridum K000583539 isotype

    First published in C.Gay, Fl. Chil. 4: 457 (1849)

    Accepted by

    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Förther (1998: 195)
    • Marticorena (1968: 44)
    • Johnston (1928b: 37)
    • Reiche (1907: 2401910: 198)
    • (1849: 457)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Luebert, F. (2013). A revision of Heliotropium sect. Cochranea (Heliotropiaceae) Kew Bulletin 68: 1-54. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0