1. Family: Malvaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Hibiscus L.
      1. Hibiscus trionum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. Central & E. Europe to Medit., Tropical & S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Malvaceae, Bernard Verdcourt & Geoffrey Mwachala. Pavonia, B Verdcourt; Kosteletzkya, OJ Blanchard Jr.; Gossypium, P Fryxell & B Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2009

    Type
    Type: “Habitat in Italia, Africa”, not designated
    Habit
    Spreading herb to 1 m tall, erect or prostrate.
    Stem
    Stems terete, glabrous to sparsely setose with a line or two of pubescence
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, palmatifid or deeply 3–5palmatipartite, the segments irregularly pinnatifid, ovate in outline, 2–9 × 3–12 cm, apex acute or rounded, base cordate or truncate, margin dentate, rarely entire, hispid, pubescent or above and below; petiole 2–7.5 cm long, sparsely to densely pubescent with scattered stellate setae; stipules linear, 5–8 × 1–1.5 mm, hispid; epicalyx of 10–15 linear bracts 10–15 × 1–1.5 mm, glabrous to pubescent-hispid
    Flowers
    Flowers solitary in the leaf axils; pedicel 15–60 mm long, articulated in the upper quarter, stellate-hispid; calyx lobes narrowly to broadly triangular, 10–15 mm long, united in the lower half, papery, pilose-hispid on the outside, pilose within with pubescent margins
    Corolla
    Corolla yellow with a maroon spot at base, 25–30 mm long; glabrous to stellate-hairy outside, glabrous within.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube 4–10 mm long; filaments 3 mm long; exserted part of style 3 mm, silky
    Fruits
    Capsule dark brown to black when dry, ellipsoid, 10–12 mm long, 10 mm diameter, sparsely setose, enclosed in the accrescent calyx.
    Seeds
    Seeds grey-brown, wedge-shaped, 2–3 × 1–2 mm, tuberculate
    Ecology
    Grassland associated with water courses and areas of poor drainage in black cotton soil; 100–2200 m
    Note
    Although Fawcett & Rendle in Fl. Jamaica 5: 140 (1926) indicated material in LINN as type, they did not distinguish between sheets 875.39 and 875.40, neither of which carries the relevant Species Plantarum number (i.e. “20”). Both appear to be post-1753 additions to the collection, and are not original material for the name. Later authors have often incorrectly treated one or other collection as the type.
    Distribution
    Flora districts: U1 U3 K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 T1 T2 T5 Range: Tropical and South Africa, North Africa, S Europe, Asia and Australia
    [FZ]

    Malvaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Annual herb up to 1·5 m. tall; young stems stellate-pubescent to stellate-tomentose or hispid.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 2–6 × 2–6 cm., suborbicular to ovate in outline (or hastate but not apparently in our area), varying from not lobed to deeply 3–5-palmatilobed or incised, hispid on the nerves, apex rounded, base truncate to slightly cordate, 3–5-nerved, lobes pinnately incised; petiole 1–4 cm. long, hairy like the young stems; stipules 4–8 mm. long, linear.
    Flowers
    Flowers 2·5–4 cm. in diam., white, cream or yellow, with purple centres, solitary, axillary; peduncle up to 5·5 cm. long, hairy like the young stems.
    Epicalyx
    Epicalyx of 12 bracts; bracts 7–14 mm. long, filiform, often hispid.
    Calyx
    Calyx up to 2·5 cm. long, scarious with purplish longitudinal veins, stellate-pilose or hispid, becoming inflated; lobes united nearly to the apex.
    Corolla
    Petals 2–3 × 1·5–3 cm., obovate, nearly glabrous.
    Stamens
    Staminal tube 3–4 mm. long, somewhat glandular; free parts of filaments 3–4 mm. long.
    Style
    Style-branches 2 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule 10–14 mm. in diam., subglobose, hispid, enclosed in the inflated calyx.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2 × 1·5 cm., subreniform, tuberculate.
    [FWTA]

    Malvaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    Much-branched hispid annual
    Flowers
    Flowers yellow with a purple centre.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Angola, Botswana, Bulgaria, Burkina, Cape Provinces, Chad, Czechoslovakia, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Free State, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kenya, Kriti, Krym, KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Libya, Mali, Mauritania, Morocco, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Northern Provinces, Oman, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Senegal, Sicilia, Sinai, Somalia, South European Russi, Spain, St.Helena, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Uganda, Ukraine, Yemen, Yugoslavia, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Amur, Arizona, Arkansas, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, California, Chile Central, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Chita, Colorado, Connecticut, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, France, Georgia, Germany, Great Britain, Hainan, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Irkutsk, Jamaica, Japan, Kansas, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Kirgizstan, Korea, Louisiana, Maine, Manchuria, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mongolia, Montana, Nebraska, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, North Dakota, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Saskatchewan, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tadzhikistan, Taiwan, Tennessee, Texas, Tibet, Turkmenistan, Uruguay, Utah, Uzbekistan, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Xinjiang

    Common Names

    English
    Black-eyed susan, Bladder hibiscus, Bladderweed, Flower-of-an-hour

    Hibiscus trionum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 16, 2008 Crawford, F. [192], Namibia K000450334
    Brown, R. [Bennett No. 5134], Australia K000348510
    Cunningham, A. [126], Australia K000348503
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000240771
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000240773
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000432452
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa K000432453
    Mueller, F. von [s.n.], Australia K000348507
    Cooper, T. [1968] K000240772
    Lindley [s.n.], Australia K000348512 Unknown type material
    Mitchell, T.L. [s.n.], Australia K000348511
    Basedow, H. [122], Australia K000357294
    Mitchell, T. L. Lieut. Col. Sir [34], Australia K000348514
    Dallachy, J. [s.n.], Australia K000348505
    Strange, F. [1049], Australia K000348504
    Strange, F. [s.n.], Australia K000348508
    Strange, F. [s.n.], Australia K000348509
    Cheeseman, T.F. [s.n.], Australia K000348506
    Barnard [s.n.], Australia K000348513
    Heyne, B. [s.n.], Karnataka K000659807
    Heyne, B. [s.n.], Andhra Pradesh K000659806
    Parsa, A. [77], Iran Hibiscus djabinianus K000659797 Unknown type material
    unknown [466] Hibiscus ternatus K000240760

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 697 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Hadinec, J. & Lustyk, P. (2017). Additamenta ad floram Reipublicae Bohemicae. XV. Zprávy Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 52: 37-113.
    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Verloove, F. & Heyneman, G. (2012). Merkwaardige plantencollecties van twee antropogene zaadbanken in Gent (Oost-Vlaanderen, België) Dumortiera 100: 19-24.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 69.
    • Hochr. in Ann. Conserv. Jard. Bot. Genèv. 4: 144
    • —F.T.A. 1: 196
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Parslow, R. & Bennallick, I. (2017). The new flora of the Isles of Scilly: 1-539. Parslow Press.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Ackerfield, J. (2015). Flora of Colorado: 1-818. BRIT Press.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Verloove, F. & Heyneman, G. (2012). Merkwaardige plantencollecties van twee antropogene zaadbanken in Gent (Oost-Vlaanderen, België) Dumortiera 100: 19-24.
    • Allred, K.W. (2012). Flora Neomexicana, ed. 2, 1: 1-599. Range Science Herbarium, Las Cruces, New Mexico.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2012). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 4: 1-431. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Lambdon, P. (2012). Flowering plants & ferns of St Helena: 1-624. Pisces publications for St Helena nature conservation group.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Verdcourt, B. & Mwachala, G.M. (2009). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Malvaceae: 1-170.
    • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Wu, Z., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D. (eds.) in Flora of China Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of China 12: 1-534. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
    • Peschkova, G.A. (ed.) (2006). Flora of Siberia 10: 1-314. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Boulos, L. (2000). Flora of Egypt 2: 1-352. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
    • Iwatsuki, K., Boufford, D.E. & Ohba, H. (eds.) (1999). Flora of Japan IIc: 1-328. Kodansha Ltd., Tokyo.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Ghazanfar, S.A. (1992). An Annotated Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Oman and their Vernacular names Scripta Botanica Belgica 2: 1-153.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 1: 1-359. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1987). Flore des Mascareignes 51-62: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1987). Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 2: 1-448. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Somalia 2: 48, fig. 25h–i (1999).
    • Fl. Eth. & Eritr. 2(2): 200 (1995)
    • F.Z.: 1(2): 446 (1961)
    • Keay, F.W.T.A. ed. 2, 1(2): 346 (1958)
    • F.P.S. 2: 22 (1952)
    • F.T.A. 1: 196 (1868)
    • Fl. Cap. 1: 176 (1860)
    • Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 697 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/