1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Holcus L.
      1. Holcus mollis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe, NW. Africa.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect, or geniculately ascending; 20-110 cm long; 4-7 -noded. Culm-internodes distally glabrous. Culm-nodes bearded. Leaf-sheaths pilose; with reflexed hairs. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-5 mm long. Leaf-blades 4-20 cm long; 3-12 mm wide; mid-green, or grey-green. Leaf-blade surface glabrous, or pubescent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; oblong, or ovate; dense, or loose; 4-12(-22) cm long. Panicle branches pubescent. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels 1-4 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; (3.5-)5-7 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated below proximal fertile floret. Floret callus bearded.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; with diminished florets at the apex. Spikelets elliptic; laterally compressed; (3.5-)5-7 mm long; falling entire. Rhachilla internodes elongated below proximal fertile floret. Floret callus bearded.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; exceeding apex of florets; thinner than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; (3.5-)5-7 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Lower glume primary vein ciliate. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface asperulous. Lower glume apex acute. Upper glume elliptic; (3.5-)5-7 mm long; 2 length of adjacent fertile lemma; chartaceous; 1-keeled; 3 -veined. Upper glume primary vein ciliate. Upper glume surface asperulous; pubescent; hairy on veins. Upper glume apex acute; mucronate.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma elliptic; (2.2-)2.5-3 mm long; cartilaginous; shiny; keeled; keeled above; 5 -veined. Lemma lateral veins obscure. Lemma surface glabrous, or puberulous; hairy above. Lemma apex obtuse. Palea 1 length of lemma. Apical sterile florets 1 in number; male; elliptic; 2.5-3 mm long. Apical sterile lemmas awned; 1 -awned. Apical sterile lemma awns subapical; straight; 3.5-5 mm long (exserted).
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 1.6-2.7 mm long. Ovary glabrous.
    Distribution
    Europe: northern, central, southwestern, southeastern, and eastern. Africa: north and Macaronesia. Asia-tropical: India. Australasia: Australia and New Zealand. North America: western Canada, northwest USA, northeast USA, and southwest USA.
    Reference
    Aveneae. TAC.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Austria, Baltic States, Belgium, Bulgaria, Central European Rus, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Netherlands, Northwest European R, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, Yugoslavia

    Introduced into:

    Azores, British Columbia, California, Chatham Is., Colombia, Crozet Is., Delaware, Finland, Idaho, Kerguelen, Madeira, New Hampshire, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand South, Newfoundland, North Carolina, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Sri Lanka, Tasmania, Vermont, Victoria, Washington

    Holcus mollis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 172], United Kingdom K000914529
    Cope, T.A. [RBG 172], United Kingdom K000914530
    Reuter, G.F. [s.n.], Spain Holcus mollis subsp. reuteri K000808911

    First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1305 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Edgar, E & Connor, H.E. (2010). Flora of New Zealand, ed. 2, 5: 1-650. R.E.Owen, Government Printer, Wellington.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Frenot, Y., Chown, S.L., Whinam, J., Selkirk, P.M., Convey, P., Skotnicki, M. & Bergstrom,D.M. (2005). Biological invasions in the Antarctic: extent, impacts and implications Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society 80: 45-72.
    • Fedorov, A.A. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Russia. The European part and bordering regions 1: 1-546. A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, Broekfield.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1980). Flora Europaea 5: 1-452. Cambridge University Press.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0