1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Hyperthelia Clayton
      1. Hyperthelia dissoluta (Nees ex Steud.) Clayton

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, Madagascar.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; 100-300 cm long; without nodal roots, or with prop roots. Leaf-sheath auricles absent, or erect. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-3(-24) mm long. Leaf-blades 15-30 cm long; 3-6 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; fastigiate. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Spatheole lanceolate; 5-7 cm long; scarious; glabrous, or hirsute. Peduncle 3-5 cm long; glabrous, or pilose above. Racemes 2; paired; erect; 2-3 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip oblique; flat. Raceme-bases filiform; unequal (the longer measured); 2-3 mm long; glabrous; extended into an oblong appendage (4-11 mm); with 4-11 mm long appendage. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; 4 mm long; setose; tip oblique.
    Spikelets
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; lower raceme 2 in number; 0 in upper raceme; male; lanceolate; 8-15 mm long; equalling fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 9-14 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet callus cuneate; 0.3-0.8 mm long; acute. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; muticous, or awned; one glume awned; with 0-6 mm long awn. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes. Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 10-14 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; 3-6 mm long; pilose; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs white.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; lower raceme 2 in number; 0 in upper raceme; male; lanceolate; 8-15 mm long; equalling fertile. Basal sterile spikelet lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 9-14 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet callus cuneate; 0.3-0.8 mm long; acute. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; muticous, or awned; one glume awned; with 0-6 mm long awn. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 10-14 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; 3-6 mm long; pilose; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs white.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; much thinner above; yellow; without keels; 10-14 -veined. Lower glume surface with a longitudinal median groove. Lower glume apex dentate; 2 -fid; setaceously attenuate. Upper glume oblong; coriaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex emarginate; muticous, or mucronate.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; 5-6 mm long; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliate on margins. Fertile lemma linear; 6 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; incised 0.1 of lemma length; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 50-100 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn hirtellous. Palea absent or minute.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Tufted perennial.
    Culms
    Culms 1–3 m. high.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades up to 30 cm. long, 6 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    False panicle erect, rather stiff, of 4–6 fastigiate tiers; spatheole narrowly lanceolate, 5–7 cm. long, glabrous or sometimes hirsute, yellowish green eventually becoming reddish, the peduncle 1/2–2/3 as long; racemes 2–3 cm. long, 2-awned per pair, not deflexed; upper raceme-base 2–3(–5) mm. long, the appendage linear to narrowly lanceolate and 4–11 mm. long.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 10–14 mm. long (including callus); callus 3–6 mm. long; upper glume with or without a mucro up to 2 mm. long; upper lemma with a yellowish awn 5–10 cm. long.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet 9–14 mm. long, with or without a terminal bristle up to 6 mm. long. Sessile spikelet 10–14 mm. long (including callus); callus 3–6 mm. long; upper glume with or without a mucro up to 2 mm. long; upper lemma with a yellowish awn 5–10 cm. long.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet 9–14 mm. long, with or without a terminal bristle up to 6 mm. long.
    Figures
    Fig. 183.
    Habitat
    A common species of deciduous bushland and wooded grassland, particularly by waysides and in disturbed places; 0–2400 m.
    Distribution
    K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 tropical and South AfricaMadagascarintroduced to tropical America
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Perennial up to nearly 3 m. high
    Inflorescences
    A fastigiate yellowish inflorescence
    Ecology
    A savanna grass typical of waysides and disturbed places.
    [CPLC]

    Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

    Distribution
    Cultivada en Colombia.
    Habit
    Hierba
    [FZ]

    Gramineae, T. A. Cope. Flora Zambesiaca 10:4. 2002

    Habit
    Caespitose perennial; culms 100–300 cm high.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf laminas up to 30 cm × 6 mm.
    Inflorescences
    False panicle erect, rather stiff, composed of 4–6 fastigiate tiers; spatheole 5–7 cm long, narrowly lanceolate, glabrous or sometimes hirsute, yellowish-green eventually becoming reddish, the peduncle 1/2–2/3 as long; racemes 2–3 cm long, 2-awned per pair, not deflexed; superior raceme-base 2–3(5) mm long, the appendage 4–11 mm long, linear to narrowly lanceolate.
    Sessile
    Sessile spikelet 10–14 mm long (including the callus); callus 3–6 mm long; superior glume with or without a mucro up to 2 mm long; superior lemma with a yellowish awn 5–10 cm long.
    Spikelets
    Pedicelled spikelet 9–14 mm long, with or without a terminal bristle up to 6 mm long. Sessile spikelet 10–14 mm long (including the callus); callus 3–6 mm long; superior glume with or without a mucro up to 2 mm long; superior lemma with a yellowish awn 5–10 cm long.
    Pedicelled
    Pedicelled spikelet 9–14 mm long, with or without a terminal bristle up to 6 mm long.
    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual. Culms 120-170 cm long; without nodal roots, or with prop roots. Leaf-sheath auricles absent, or erect. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 2-3(-24) mm long. Leaf-blades 15-30 cm long; 3-6 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; fastigiate. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Spatheole lanceolate; 5-7 cm long; scarious. Peduncle glabrous, or pilose above. Racemes 2; paired; erect; 2-3 cm long; bearing few fertile spikelets; bearing 1 fertile spikelets on each. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; ciliate on margins. Rhachis internodes filiform. Rhachis internode tip oblique; flat. Raceme-bases filiform; unequal (the longer measured); 2-3 mm long; glabrous; extended into an oblong appendage. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; 4 mm long; ciliate; tip oblique.
    Sterile
    Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; lower raceme 2 in number; 0 in upper raceme; male; lanceolate; 8-15 mm long; equalling fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes glabrous; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 9-14 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet callus cuneate; 0.3-0.8 mm long; acute. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; muticous, or awned; one glume awned; with 0-6 mm long awn. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 10-14 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; 3-6 mm long; pilose; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs white. Basal sterile spikelets well-developed; lower raceme 2 in number; 0 in upper raceme; male; lanceolate; 8-15 mm long; equalling fertile. Basal sterile spikelet glumes glabrous; lower glume muticous. Companion sterile spikelets well-developed; male; lanceolate; 9-14 mm long; as long as fertile; deciduous with the fertile. Companion sterile spikelet callus cuneate; 0.3-0.8 mm long; acute. Companion sterile spikelet glumes coriaceous; muticous, or awned; one glume awned; with 0-6 mm long awn. Companion sterile spikelet lemmas 2; enclosed by glumes.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear; subterete; 10-14 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus cuneate; 3-6 mm long; pilose; base pungent; attached obliquely. Spikelet callus hairs white.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume oblong; 1 length of spikelet; coriaceous; much thinner above; yellow; without keels; 10-14 -veined. Lower glume surface with a longitudinal median groove; pubescent; hairy above. Lower glume apex dentate; 2 -fid. Upper glume oblong; coriaceous; without keels; 3 -veined. Upper glume apex emarginate; muticous.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret oblong; hyaline; 2 -veined; ciliate on margins. Fertile lemma linear; 6 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 3 -veined. Lemma margins ciliate. Lemma apex dentate; 2 -fid; awned; 1 -awned. Principal lemma awn from a sinus; geniculate; 50-100 mm long overall; with twisted column. Column of lemma awn hirtellous. Palea absent or minute.
    Distribution
    Africa: northeast tropical.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. WDC.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Ivory Coast, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mauritania, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Rwanda, Senegal, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua

    Common Names

    English
    Yellow thatching grass

    Hyperthelia dissoluta (Nees ex Steud.) Clayton appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jul 15, 2010 Bidgood, S. [5113], Tanzania K000190341
    Chevalier, A. [17150], Ivory Coast K000280146
    Lely, H.V. [432], Nigeria K000280148
    Maitland, T.D. [160A], Nigeria K000280147
    Galeotti, H. [5697], Veracruz K000975017 Unknown type material
    Chevalier, A.J.B. [24943], Mali K000212179
    Davey, J.T. [6], Mali K000212180
    Adam, J.-.G. [989], Mali K000212177
    Duong [s.n.], Mali K000212181
    Rogeon, J.-.F. [221], Mali K000212178
    Schweinfurth [2361], Sudan Hyperthelia macrolepis K000280150 syntype
    Schweinfurth [2411], Sudan Hyperthelia macrolepis K000280149 syntype

    First published in Kew Bull. 20: 441 (1966)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Kew Bull. 20: 441 (1966).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Vigosa-Mercado, J.L. & Fonseca, R.M. (2017). Flora de Guerrero 75: 1-153. Facultade de Ciencias, UNAM.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Cope, T.A. (2002). Flora Zambesiaca 10(4): 1-190. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Clayton, W.D. & Renvoize, S.A. (1982). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 3: 451-898.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Gillet, H. (1968). Le peuplement végétal du massif de l'Ennedi (Tchad) Mémoires du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Serie B. Botanique 17: 1-206.
    • Robyns, W. (1929). Flore Agrostologique du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1: 1-229. Goemaere, Bruxelles.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • W.D. Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 496 (1972).
    • W.D. Clayton in Kew Bulletin 20: 441 (1966)

    Sources

    Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/