1. Family: Burseraceae Kunth
    1. Genus: Canarium L.
      1. Canarium schweinfurthii Engl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Burseraceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Habit
    Tree up to 30 (45) m. tall (but often less in our area); bark grey, rough; crown flattish and much branched; young branches densely ferruginous-pubescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves up to 50 cm. long; petiole up to c. 5 cm. long, ferruginous-pubescent; rhachis and petiole flattened above, semicircular in section below, often slightly winged at the edges towards the base; leaflets 8–12 (23)-jugate, up to 15 (18) × 4 (5·5) cm., oblong, apex acuminate, margins entire, base cordate, sparsely pubescent or glabrescent above, ± densely hairy beneath, especially on the nerves, nerves and veins moderately prominent above, more prominent below; petiolules 1–5 mm. long, densely pubescent.
    Flowers
    Flowers in dense panicles up to 30 cm. long; branches of inflorescence ferruginous-tomentellous; bracts caducous, 1–2 cm. long, ovate-triangular to lanceolate-triangular, ferruginously tomentellous; pedicels 1–5 mm. long, ferruginously tomentellous.
    Calyx
    Calyx c. 1 cm. long, infundibuliform, lobed about 1/2-way, ferruginous-tomentellous outside and within.
    Corolla
    Petals 0·6–1·2 cm. long, lanceolate, keeled, greyish-tomentellous outside, glabrous within.
    Stamens
    Stamens with filaments c. 0·4 mm. long, inserted on the cylindric disk, glabrous; anthers oblong (in female flowers c. 2 mm. long, with the thecae sparsely pubescent).
    Disc
    Disk cylindric, pubescent in male flowers.
    Pistil
    Ovary ovoid to obconic, glabrous; style c. 2 mm. long; stigma 3-lobed.
    Fruits
    Fruit purplish, up to 4 × 2 cm., plum-like, ellipsoid, usually mucronulate; endocarp almost as long as the fruit, hard and trigonously spindle-shaped.
    [FTEA]

    Burseraceae, J.B. Gillett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Tree up to 40 m. tall with a massive straight cylindrical trunk and widely spreading branches; bark grey, rough; young branches ferruginous-pubescent, soon glabrescent.
    Leaves
    Leaves up to 50 cm. long; petiole up to ± 5 cm., flattened above, slightly winged at the base, like the rhachis and petiolules ferruginous-pubescent, sometimes sparsely so; stipules oblong-spathulate, inserted on the petiole well above the base, enclosing the terminal bud, very caducous; petiolules 1–6 mm. long; leaflets 17–25(–45), stiff, entire, dark brownish green when dry, oblong, cordate at the base, acute-acuminate at the apex, sparsely pubescent or glabrescent above, more densely pubescent beneath, especially on the nerves, up to 15(–18) cm. long × 4(–5.5) cm. wide; primary lateral nerves in ± 15 pairs; nerve network dense, prominent beneath, less so above.
    Inflorescences
    Panicles dense, ferruginous-tomentellous, less than 4 cm. wide, up to 30 cm. long, including a peduncle of up to 12 cm.; pedicels 1–5 mm. long, lengthening to 15 mm. in fruit.
    Calyx
    Calyx up to 10 mm. long, funnel-shaped, lobed about halfway, ferruginous tomentellous without and within.
    Corolla
    Petals creamy white, up to 12 mm. long, lanceolate, keeled, greyish-tomentellous outside, glabrous within.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted on the pubescent tubular disc; anthers, filaments and disc each ± 2 mm. long in ♂ flowers, ± half as long in the ♀.
    Pistil
    Ovary (absent in ♂ flowers) ovoid, glabrous; style ± 2 mm. long; stigma subglobose, 3-lobed.
    Fruits
    Fruit purplish, ellipsoid, up to 4 cm. long and 2 cm. wide; stone trigonous-spindle-shaped, nearly as long as the fruit.
    Seeds
    Cotyledons divided into 3 linear-elliptic leaflets, each of the 2 lateral leaflets deeply bifid; first foliage leaves oblong, entire.
    Figures
    Fig. 1/1–8.
    Habitat
    In cleared forests, rare except by lakes, in drier areas chiefly near rivers; often an isolated tree on cleared ground; 1000–1600 m.; rainfall 900–1400 mm.
    Distribution
    Senegal to S. Sudan and possibly SW. Ethiopia (but not N. Ethiopia, see note), S. to Angola and Zambia T1 T4 U1 U2 U3 U4
    [FWTA]

    Burseraceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A large forest tree, to 120 ft. high
    Trunk
    Very slight blunt buttresses
    Exudate
    Cut bark copiously exuding gum which solidifies to a whitish resin
    Flowers
    Flowers creamy white
    Fruits
    Ripe fruits purplish, plum-like, containing a hard spindle-shaped, trigonous “stone.”

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Benin, Burkina, Cabinda, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zambia, Zaïre

    Canarium schweinfurthii Engl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11145], Cameroon K000199837
    Jan 1, 1955 Schweinfurth, G. [3324] K000425291 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1955 Guillaumin, A. [s.n.] K000425290 Unknown type material
    Brenan, J.P.M., Nigeria 21886.000
    Styles, B.T. [350], Uganda 25694.035

    First published in A.L.P.P.de Candolle & A.C.P.de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 4: 145 (1883)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Gillett, J.B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Burseraceae: 1-94.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Aubrév. Fl. For. C. Iv. 2: 10, t. 170
    • Kennedy For. Fl. S. Nig. 154.
    • Chev. Bot. 111
    • in DC. Monogr. Burserac. 145 (1883)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Vollesen in Fl. Eth. 3: 442 (1990).
    • Burkill, Useful Pl. W. Trop. Afr., ed. 2, 1: 301 (1985).
    • Hamilton, Ug. For. Trees: 210 (1981).
    • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 283, t. 53 (1963).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 173 (1962).
    • Leenh. in Blumea 9: 382, fig. 20 (1959).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 697 (1958).
    • Troupin in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 7: 144 (1958).
    • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan 2: 323 (1952).
    • W.J. Eggeling, Indigenous Trees of the Uganda Protectorate, ed. 2: 51, photo. 6 (1952).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 78 (1949).
    • Engl., Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(1): 781, fig. 367 (1915).
    • Gilg. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile B: 412 & C: 230 (1895)
    • Engl. in A. & C. DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 145 (1883)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0