1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Andropogon L.
      1. Andropogon bicornis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial; caespitose. Culms erect; 150-250 cm long; 4-6 mm diam. Culm-internodes thick-walled. Culm-nodes glabrous. Lateral branches ample. Leaf-sheaths keeled. Ligule a ciliolate membrane; 1-1.2 mm long. Leaf-blades 25-50 cm long; 2-6 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface glabrous. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Synflorescence compound; paniculate (obovate); dense. Inflorescence composed of racemes; terminal and axillary; subtended by a spatheole; embraced at base by subtending leaf. Spatheole linear; 3-4 cm long. Racemes 2; paired; 2.5-3.5 cm long. Rhachis fragile at the nodes; plumose on surface; plumose on margins. Rhachis hairs 6-8 mm long. Rhachis internodes filiform; 2.5-3 mm long. Rhachis internode tip transverse; cupuliform; with simple rim. Spikelets in pairs. Fertile spikelets sessile; 1 in the cluster. Companion sterile spikelets pedicelled; 1 in the cluster. Pedicels filiform; 3-4 mm long; plumose; with 6-8 mm long hairs.
    Sterile
    Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels, or rudimentary (except terminal); 0-1 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 3-3.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus oblong; 0.2 mm long; pilose; base obtuse; inserted. Companion sterile spikelets represented by barren pedicels, or rudimentary (except terminal); 0-1 mm long.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 basal sterile florets; 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets lanceolate; dorsally compressed; 3-3.5 mm long; falling entire; deciduous with accessory branch structures. Spikelet callus oblong; 0.2 mm long; pilose; base obtuse; inserted.
    Glume
    Glumes dissimilar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1 length of spikelet; membranous; 2-keeled; keeled laterally. Lower glume intercarinal veins absent. Lower glume surface concave. Upper glume lanceolate; membranous; 1-keeled; 1 -veined. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume muticous.
    Florets
    Basal sterile florets barren; without significant palea. Lemma of lower sterile floret lanceolate; 2-2.4 mm long; hyaline; 0 -veined; ciliate on margins. Fertile lemma lanceolate; 1.6-2.2 mm long; hyaline; without keel. Lemma apex entire; acute; muticous. Palea absent or minute.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3; 0.5-0.7 mm long; purple.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; 1.6-2 mm long.
    Distribution
    North America: Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Andropogoneae. Fl Costa Rica 1993.
    Diagnostic
    Terminal pedicelled spikelet larger than sessile.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cayman Is., Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Florida, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Chagos Archipelago

    Andropogon bicornis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2009 Projeto Flora Cristalino [367], Mato Grosso K000579248
    Jan 1, 1973 Irwin, H.S. [28350], Minas Gerais K000847026
    Burchell [808], Brazil K000632910
    Glaziou, A.F.M. [16584], Brazil K000632911 Unknown type material
    Lehmann, F.C. [4403], Colombia K000632888 Unknown type material
    Fendler, A. [1655], Venezuela K000632889
    Fendler, A. [1655], Venezuela K000632890 Unknown type material
    Irwin, H.S. [7640], Goiás K000847027
    Burchell, W.J. [4447], Brazil K000847012
    Balansa [271], Paraguay K000632925
    Balansa [2977], Paraguay K000632926

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1046 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Nagahama, N., Anton, A.M. & Norrmann, G.A. (2014). Taxon delimination in the Andropogon lateralis complex (Poaceae) in southern South America based on Morphometrical analysis Systematic Botany 39: 804-813.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 25: 1-781. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.

    Sources

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2019. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0