1. Family: Burseraceae Kunth
    1. Genus: Commiphora Jacq.
      1. Commiphora schimperi (O.Berg) Engl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Eritrea to S. Africa, Arabian Peninsula.

    [FZ]

    Burseraceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 2:1. 1963

    Habit
    Shrub or small bushy tree, spiny, quite glabrous except for a few brown hairs at the apex and base of the petioles; bark smooth, peeling in yellowish strips.
    Leaves
    Leaves 3-foliolate; petiole up to 2·5 cm. long; terminal leaflet up to 2·6 × 1·4 cm., narrowly obovate or obovate, apex acute (often truncate to the north of our area), base gradually cuneate; lateral leaflets about half the size of the terminal ones, broadly obovate or ovate, apex acute, base broadly cuneate; margin of all leaflets coarsely crenate in the upper half.
    Flowers
    Flowers appearing before the leaves in axillary abbreviated clusters, often borne on the spines; pedicels c. 1 mm. long.
    Calyx
    Calyx 1·5 mm. long, lobed to 1/3-way or less.
    Corolla
    Petals c. 3·5 mm. long.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments subterete.
    Disc
    Disk-lobes 4, ± bifid at the apex.
    Fruits
    Fruits c. 1·3 × 0·8 cm., ellipsoid to m globose, slightly apiculate at the apex; pseudaril apparently absent; endocarp c. 0·75 × 0·5 cm., ellipsoid, lumpy-rugose, with one face very deeply convex and the other shallowly so.
    [FTEA]

    Burseraceae, J.B. Gillett. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1991

    Habit
    Almost glabrous shrub or small tree 2–6 m. tall; trunk cylindrical; outer bark peeling in dull yellow or grey flakes from the green under-bark; slash pale or reddish, smooth; exudate usually sparse, ± aromatic, producing a hard yellowish gum-resin; both long- and short-shoots usually spine-tipped, young twigs glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves all 3-foliolate, often glabrous but sometimes with rather long flexuous golden hairs at the bases of the leaflets and the petiole which is usually about as long as the central leaflet but sometimes, especially on short-shoots, much longer and sometimes on long-shoots much shorter; terminal leaflet obovate or rhombic, rounded or pointed, cuneate-attenuate at the base, 7–35 mm. long, 8–22 mm. wide, with 3–6 deep crenations usually above the middle on each side; lateral leaflets usually similar in shape but 1/3–2/3 as long, sometimes almost orbicular with a wide basal angle and with teeth nearer the base.
    Flowers
    Flowers greenish yellow, precocious, glabrous, the ♂ 20–40 together in dense clusters of very short cymes, the ♀ 2–6 together; pedicels ± 1 mm. long; receptacle cupular ± 1.2 mm. deep and 1.5 mm. wide.
    Calyx
    Calyx ± 2.5 mm. long including triangular lobes ± 1 mm. long.
    Corolla
    Petals linear, reflexed near the pointed tip, 4–5 mm. long, 1 mm. wide.
    Filaments
    Filaments 5 and 3, anthers 1.1 and 0.7 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit-stalk 0.5–2 mm. long; drupe flattened ovoid or ellipsoid, usually distinctly beaked, sometimes merely acute, 10–13 mm. long (including a 0–3 mm. beak) × 7 × (3.5 + 4) mm.; pseudaril almost entirely surrounding and closely clinging to the rugose stone, sometimes shortly 4-lobed at the tip; stone ovoid, pointed ± 8 × 5 × (2.5 + 3) mm. with small but well-defined apical pits; sterile cell convex, thickest below the middle, resembling the fertile cell but rather smaller, the stone thus appears 4-gonous when viewed from above.
    Figures
    Fig. 7/6–8, p. 41.
    Habitat
    Bushed grassland and Acacia, Commiphora bushland; 430–1890 m. (this species and two varieties of C. africana reach the highest altitudes attained by Commiphora in East Africa) rainfall 450–700 mm.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T5 T6 T7 U1 curiously unknown in Zambia and Malawi

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Botswana, Burundi, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Mozambique, Northern Provinces, Somalia, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Uganda, Yemen, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Commiphora schimperi (O.Berg) Engl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 4, 1984 Eggeling, W.J. [1221], Uganda K000425348
    Sep 9, 1983 Trotha [233] K000425386
    Jun 16, 1970 Schimper [624], Ethiopia K000199676
    Jun 16, 1970 Schimper [624], Ethiopia K000199677
    Jun 16, 1970 Seiner II [64], South Africa K000425455
    Chase, N.C. [8516], Zimbabwe K000285580
    Eggeling, W.J. [854], Uganda K000425347
    Polhill, R. [1051], Tanzania 25207.000
    Ash, J. [754], Ethiopia 40405.000
    Dr King's collector [8679], Peninsular Malaysia K000800061
    Beccari [23], Ethiopia K000199675
    Wray, L. [2822], Peninsular Malaysia K000800060
    Ellenbeck [292], Somalia K000199674
    Engler [1924], Kenya K000425387
    Hansen, O.J. [3530], Botswana K000285579
    Holmberg [859], Peninsular Malaysia K000800059
    Drummond, R.B. [2367], Tanzania Commiphora trothae 16040.000

    First published in A.L.P.P.de Candolle & A.C.P.de Candolle, Monogr. Phan. 4: 13 (1883)

    Accepted by

    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) in Thulin, M. (ed.) (1999). Flora of Somalia 2: 1-303. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Gillett, J.B. (1991). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Burseraceae: 1-94.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Exell, A.W., Fernandes, A. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1963). Flora Zambesiaca 2(1): 1-351. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Vollesen in Fl. Eth. 3: 454, fig. 123–7 (1990).
    • Van der Walt in Flora of Southern Africa 18: 9 (1986).
    • Coates Palgrave, Trees S. Afr.: 370 (1977)
    • Van der Walt. in Bothalia 11: 65, figs. 20–26 (1973).
    • Wild in Flora Zambesiaca 2: 277, t. 52A (1963).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 92 (1961).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 83 (1949).
    • Schwartz, Fl. Trop. Arab.: 128 (1939).
    • B.D. Burtt in Bulletin of Miscellaneous Information, Kew 1935: 108 (1935).
    • Engl. in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien, ed. 2, 19A: 435, fig. 204C–D (1931).
    • Engl. in A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(1): 795, fig. 371N–Nb (1915).
    • Engl. in A. Engler, Botanische Jahrbücher für Systematik, Pflanzengeschichte und Pflanzengeographie 48: 459, 477, fig. 2N–Nb (1912)
    • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 229 (1895)
    • Engl. in DC., Monogr. Phan. 4: 13 (1883)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0