1. Family: Convolvulaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Ipomoea L.
      1. Ipomoea alba L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical America.

    [FZ]

    Convolvulaceae, Maria Leonor Gonçalves. Flora Zambesiaca 8:1. 1987

    Habit
    Ornamental species, annual or perennial, glabrous or rarely pubescent.
    Stem
    Stems twining or prostrate, thick, smooth or rarely muriculate.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina ovate or circular, in outline, entire or 3-lobed, 6–20 × 5–16 cm., acute, acuminate or obtuse at the mucronulate apex, cordate at the base; petiole 5–20 cm. long, slender.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence axillary, 1-several-flowered; peduncle stout, 1–24 cm. long; pedicels 0·7–1·5 cm. long, lengthening to 2·5–3 cm. long and becoming very thick and clavate in fruit.
    Calyx
    Sepals unequal, elliptic, coriaceous, often reflexed in fruit and glabrous; outer 2–3 sepals 5–12 mm. long with long awn-like appendage 4–10 mm. long at the apex; inner ones longer, 8–15 mm. long, shortly mucronulate.
    Corolla
    Corolla opening at night, scented, white or greenish-cream below; tube cylindrical 7–12 × 0·5 cm.; limb salver-shaped, 11–16 cm. wide.
    Fruits
    Capsule mucronulate 2·5–3 cm. long, glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4, ovoid, brown or black, glabrous and smooth.
    [KBu]

    Wood, J.R.I., Carine, M.A., Harris, D. et al. 2015. Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia. Kew Bulletin 70: 31. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-015-9592-7

    Type
    Type: India, Rheede, Hort Ind. Malabar 11: 103. t. 50 (1692), designated by Verdcourt in Hubbard & Milne-Redhead (1963: 130).
    Habit
    Vigorous scrambling or trailing plant, stems to 10 m, glabrous, sometimes armed with soft spines
    Leaves
    Leaves petiolate, 5 – 15 × 4 – 14 cm, ovate, sometimes lobed to about one third, acuminate to a fine hair point, cordate at the base, auricles sometimes with broad teeth; petioles 3 – 18 cm
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence of 1 – 3-flowered, pedunculate, axillary cymes; peduncles 2 – 9 (– 20) cm, stout; bracteoles caducous, not seen; pedicels 5 – 15 mm, swollen below flower; sepals unequal, outer sepals 15 – 25 × 4 – 6 mm, lanceolate with a long awn 5 – 12 mm in length, green with white margins inner sepals 12 – 20 mm including a 2 – 5 mm long awn, ovate, whitish with green midrib; corolla with a cylindrical tube 5 – 12 cm long and a spreading, white limb 4 – 5 cm in diam., glabrous
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid, c. 3 cm long, glabrous; seeds 11 – 13 mm long, glabrous
    Ecology
    A pantropical weedy species, not certainly known as a native anywhere. In Bolivia widely distributed in disturbed damp bushy places, particularly along shaded tropical streams, mostly below about 1600 m where it behaves as if native. It is also cultivated growing in gardens as high as Sucre (2800 m) and Cochabamba (2600 m) as well as in the lowlands. The list of specimens below does not reflect the total distribution as cultivated plants are not included and collections are not known from areas where the plant is known to grow such as the Zongo Valley near La Paz.
    Conservation
    Least Concern (LC).
    Note
    Unmistakeable when in flower but fruiting material is difficult to distinguish from Ipomoea muricata except by the longer aristate points of the sepals. Although it has been collected in flower in almost every month of the year, it is most commonly found in flower at the end of the summer rainy season from February to July. The flowers open at night and collapse early in the morning except on cloudy days.
    [FTEA]

    Convolvulaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1963

    Habit
    A glabrous or very rarely pubescent, annual or perennial; stems prostrate or twining, up to 2.4 m. long, smooth or rarely muriculate.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blade ovate or orbicular in outline, entire or 3-lobed, 6–20 cm. long, 5–16 cm. wide, acute, acuminate or obtuse at the mucronulate apex, cordate at the base; petiole 5–20 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, 1–several-flowered; peduncle stout, 1–24 cm. long; pedicels 0.7–1.5 cm. long, lengthening to 2.5–3 cm. long and becoming very thick in fruit.
    Calyx
    Sepals elliptic, unequal; outer 2–3 sepals 5–12 mm. long, 6–7 mm. wide, with a long awn-like appendage 4–10 mm. long at the apex (Fig. 22/4, p. 102); inner sepals longer, 8–15 mm. long, 9 mm. wide, shortly mucronulate.
    Corolla
    Corolla opening at night, scented, white or greenish-cream below; tube cylindrical, 7–12 cm. long, 5 mm. wide; limb salver-shaped, 11–16 cm. wide.
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid, 2.5–3 cm. tall, glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds 4, ovoid, white to black, glabrous, 10–12 mm. long, 7–9 mm. wide.
    Habitat
    Waste places, rubbish heaps, locally established in upland and riverine forests etc.; 290–1000 m.
    Distribution
    originally American but now pantropical as an escape and also cultivated K1 K4 K7 T3 U2
    [FWTA]

    Convolvulaceae, H. Heine. Flora of West Tropical Africa 2. 1963

    Habit
    A strong twiner with stems smooth or sparingly tuberculed
    Flowers
    Large white flowers 4-6 in. across the limb, exping fragrant at night
    Ecology
    Wild in secondary vegetation, but often cultivated for ornament.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Bahamas, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Central American Pac, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Florida, French Guiana, Galápagos, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Suriname, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Bermuda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colorado, Comoros, Congo, Cook Is., East Himalaya, Equatorial Guinea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, Kermadec Is., Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malaya, Marianas, Marquesas, Mauritius, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New Mexico, New South Wales, Nigeria, Norfolk Is., Northern Provinces, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Philippines, Queensland, Réunion, Samoa, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, St.Helena, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Tanzania, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Tokelau-Manihiki, Tonga, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Uganda, Vanuatu, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Ipomoea alba L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2006 Harvey, Y.B. [128], Cameroon K000339785
    Jul 1, 2003 Sidwell, K. [403], Cameroon K000008698
    Jul 1, 2003 Ghogue, J.-P. [470], Cameroon K000008699
    Jul 1, 2003 Gosline, G. [218], Cameroon K000008700
    Aug 14, 1996 Gautier, L. [2967], Madagascar K000384521
    Mar 1, 1996 Lane, P. [455], Cameroon K000008696
    Mar 1, 1996 Cable, S. [889], Cameroon K000008697
    Mar 1, 1996 Williams, S. [144], Cameroon K000008695
    Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7709], Cameroon K000008694
    Jan 1, 1996 Rasoavimbahoaka, F. [755], Madagascar K000384520
    Jan 1, 1988 Manning, S.D. [522], Cameroon K000028518
    Jan 1, 1986 Sperling, C.R. [5782], Brazil K000944596
    Feb 20, 1985 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Madagascar K000384523
    Feb 20, 1985 Balfour, I.B. [s.n.], Madagascar K000384524
    Apr 29, 1981 Lowe, J. [3965], Brazil K000944595
    Jan 1, 1979 Spruce, R. [s.n.] K000395037
    Jan 1, 1977 Prance, G.T. [12008], Brazil K000944592
    Mar 1, 1971 Hooker, J.D. [s.n.], Cape Verde K001134238
    Mar 1, 1971 Burchell [8934], Brazil K000944587
    Mar 1, 1971 Burchell [9078], Brazil K000944588
    Mar 1, 1971 Riedel [694], Brazil K000944583
    Mar 1, 1970 Baron, R. [6494], Madagascar K000384525
    Mar 1, 1970 Zollinger, H. [445], Jawa K000830796
    Mar 1, 1970 Zollinger, H. [445], Jawa K000830797
    Jan 1, 1970 Hinton, G.B. [7587], Guerrero K000465171
    Jan 1, 1970 Burchell [8888], Brazil K000944590
    Jan 1, 1970 Spruce, R. [1626], Brazil K000944594
    Jan 1, 1970 Gardner [1771], Brazil K000944585
    Jan 1, 1960 Gevieski, A. [81], Brazil K000944589
    Hinton, G.B. [12698], Michoacán K000465159
    Hinton, G.B. [11195], Guerrero K000465170
    Hage, J.L. [1174], Brazil K000944591
    Schatz, G.E. [2721], Madagascar K000384522
    Wohlhauser, S. [60082], Madagascar K000384519
    Barbosa, M.R. [115], Brazil K000944586
    Spruce [1626], Brazil K000944593
    Hartweg [97], Mexico Ipomoea longiflora K000612743

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 161 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Carranza, E. (2015). Flora del Valle de Tehuacán-Cuicatlán 135: 1-128. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Wood, J.R.I., Carine, M.A., Harris, D., Wilkin, P., Williams, B. & Scotland, R.W. (2015). Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in Bolivia Kew Bulletin 70(31): 1-124.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Staples, G., Phoutthavong, K., Traiperm, P. & Pornpongrueng, P. (2014). A corrected and expanded checklist of Convolvulaceae from Lao PDR Thai Journal of Botany 6: 79-87.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741.
    • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Bhellum, B.L. & Magotra, R. (2011). Flora of Jammu and Kashmir state (family Convolvulaceae): a census Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 35: 732-736.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Staples, G. (with P. Traiperm) (2010). Convolvulaceae Flora of Thailand 10: 330-468. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Bianchini, R.S., Ferreira, P.P.A. in Forzza, R.C. et al. (2010). Convolvulaceae Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro.
    • Lisowski, S. in Lisowski, S. (2009). Convolvulaceae Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée: 136-145. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Austin, D. F. & M. Costea in Zuloaga, F. O., O. Morrone, & M. J. Belgrano (2008). Convolvulaceae Catálogo de las plantas vascualres del Cono Sur 2: 1936-1966. Missouri Bot. Garden.
    • Carranza, E. (2007). Convolvulaceae I, in Fl. Bajío Flora del Bajío y de regiones adyacentes 151: 1-129.
    • Jarvis, C.E. in Jarvis, C.E. (2007). Convolvulaceae Order out of Chaos Linnean Soc. London & Nat. Hist. Museum.
    • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Trusty, J.L., Kesler, H.C. & Delgado, G.H. (2006). Vascular flora of Isla del Coco, Costa Rica Proceedings of the California Academy of Sciences, ser. 4, 57: 247-355.
    • Kress, W.J., R.A. DeFilipps, E. Farr, & Y.Y. Kyi in Kress, W.J. et al. (2003). Cklist. Myanmar Convolvulaceae Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs, and Climbers of Myanmar: 197-201. National Museum of Natural History, Washington DC.
    • Wagner, W.L. & D.H. Lorence in Wagner, W. L. & D. H. Lorence. (2002-ongoing). Fl. Marquesas CNV - April 2012 2002-. Flora of the Marquesas Islands website. Smithsonian Institution & National Tropical Bot. Garden.
    • Harris, D.J. (2002). The vascular plants of the Dzanga-Sangha Reserve, Central African Republic: 1-274. National Botanic Garden (Belgium), Meise.
    • Deroin, T. (2001). Convolvulaceae Flore de Madagascar et des Comores (Plantes Vasculaires) 171: 11-287. Typographie Firmin-Didot et Cie., Paris.
    • Austin, D.F. in Stevens, W.D. & al. (eds.) (2001). Convolvulaceae Flora de Nicaragua 1: 653-679. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Meeuse, A.D.J. & W.G. Welman (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Southern Africa 28: 1-138. Botanical Research Institute, Department of Agriculture.
    • Bosser, J. & H. Heine (2000). Fl. Mascar. Convolvulaceae Flore des Mascareignes 127: 1-63. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. in Balick, M.J., Nee, M.H. & Atha, D.E. (2000). Checklist of the Vascular Plants of Belize with Common Names an Uses: i-x, 1-246. New York Botanic Garden Press, New York.
    • Liogier, H.A. & L.F. Martorell in Liogier, H.A. & Martorell, L.F. (2000). Convolvulaceae Flora of Puerto Rico and Adjacent Islands: a Systematic Synopsis: 162-167. Editorial de la Universidad de Puerto Rico, San Juan.
    • Mill, R.R. (1999). Fl. Bhutan Convolvulaceae Flora of Bhutan 2(2): 834-862. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Austin, D.F. in Wagner, W.L., D.R. Herbst, & S.H. Sohmer (1999). Man. Fl. Plts. Hawai'I Convolvulaceae Manual of the Flowering Plants of Hawai'I 1: 548-564. University of Hawaii Press.
    • Austin, D.F. in Steyermark, J., Berry, P.E., Holts, B.K. (eds). (1998). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Venezuelan Guayana 4: 377-424. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Welsh, S.L. in Welsh, S.L. (1998). Fl. Societensis Convolvulaceae Flora Societensis: 83-88. E.P.S. Inc. Utah.
    • Austin, D.F. in Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Convolvulaceae Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana): 87-88. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Austin, D.F. & Huáman, Z. (1996). A synopsis of Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) in the Americas Taxon 45: 3-38.
    • Fang, R.-Z. & Staples, G. (1995). Convolvulaceae Flora of China 16: 271-325. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • McDonald, Andrew (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora de Veracruz 77: 1-133. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones sobre Recursos Bióticos, Xalapa, Veracruz.
    • Green, P.S. (1994). Convolvulaceae Flora of Australia 49: 305-310. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kartesz, J.T. in Kartesz, J.T. (1994). Convolvulaceae A synonymized checklist of the vascular flora of the United States, Canada, and Greenland: 217-221. Timber Press.
    • Liogier, A.H. in Liogier, A. H. (1994). Convolvulaceae La flora de la Española 6: 49-114. Universidad Central del Este.
    • McPherson, G. [w/ D.F. Austin] in Braco, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Convolvulaceae Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru: 365-374. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis.
    • Lejoly, J. & S. Lisowski (1992). Les genres Merremia et Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) dans la Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire, Rwanda, Burundi) Fragmenta Floristica et Geobotanica 37: 21-125.
    • Smith, A.C. in Smith, A.C. (1991). Fl. Vitiensis Nova Convolvulaceae Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 5: 41-69. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Hancock, I.R. & C.P. Henderson (1988). Convolvulaceae Research Bulletin Dodo Creek Research Station 7: 131-132.
    • Gonçalves, M.L. (1987). Convolvulaceae Flora Zambesiaca 8(1): 9-129. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kobayashi, S. & Ono, M. (1987). A Revised List of Vascular Plants Indigenous and Introduced to the Bonin (Ogasawara) and the Volcano (Kazan) Islands Ogasawara Research 13: 1-55.
    • Khan, M.S. (1985). Fl. Bangladesh Convolvulaceae Flora of Bangladesh 30: 1-59. Bangladesh National Herbarium, Dhaka.
    • Heine, H. (1984). Fl. Nouv. Caléd. & Dépend. Convolvulaceae Flore de la Nouvelle-Calédonie et Dépendances 13: 1-91. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Austin, D. F. (1982). Flora of Ecuador 15: 3-99. Botanical Institute, University of Göteborg, Riksmuseum, Stockholm.
    • Austin, D.F. & Cavalcante, P.B. (1982). Convolvuláceas da Amazônia Publicações Avulsas do Museo Goeldi 36: 1-134.
    • Austin, D.F. in Correll, D.S. & Correll, H.B. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Bahama Archipelago: 1161-1190. J.Cramer, Vaduz.
    • Austin, D.F. in Lasser, T. (1982). Convolvulaceae Flora de Venezuela 8(3): 15-226. Fundación Educación Ambiental.
    • Austin, D.F. in Dassanayake (ed.) (1980). Rev. Handb. Fl. Ceylon Convolvulaceae A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 1: 288-363. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Powell, Dulcie A. (1979). The Convolvulaceae of the Lesser Antilles Journal of the Arnold Arboretum 60: 219-271.
    • Austin, D.F. & S. Ghazanfar in E. Nasir & Ali, S.I. (eds.) (1979). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Pakistan 126: 1-64.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1977). Convolvulaceae Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 219: 97-98, 189.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet. M.-H. (1977). Flora of Micronesia 3: Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 36: 1-34.
    • Long, R. W. & O. Lakela in Long, R. W. & O. Lakela (1976). Convolvulaceae A flora of tropical Florida: 711-724. Banyan Books.
    • Austin, D.F. (1975). Convolvulaceae Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 62: 157-224.
    • Sachet, M.-H. (1975). Fl. Marquesas Convolvulaceae Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 23: 27-34.
    • Adams, C.D. in Adams, C.D. (1972). Flowering Plants of Jamaica: 601-614. University of the West Indies, Mona.
    • Wiggins, I.L. in Wiggins, I.L & D.M. Porter (1971). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Galápagos Islands: 367-383. Stanford University Press.
    • Gooding, E.G.B. & A.R. Loveless in Gooding, E.G.B. & A.R. Loveless (1965). Convolvulaceae Flora of Barbados: 332-344. Her Majesty's Stationery Office.
    • Verdcourt, B. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of Tropical East Africa: 1-161.
    • Heine, H. in Hutchinson, J. & Dalziel, J.M. (1963). Convolvulaceae Flora of West Tropical Africa, second edition 2: 335-352 + 496. Crown Agents for Oversea Governments and Administrations.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Convolvuloideas de Uruguay Lilloa 29: 349-376. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
    • O'Donell, C.A. (1959). Las especies americanas de Ipomoea L. sect. Quamoclit (Moench) Griseb. Lilloa 29: 19-86. Universidad Nacional de Tucuman, Instituto 'Miguel Lillo'.
    • Leon, H. & Alain, H. in Leon, H. (1957). Convolvulaceae Flora de Cuba 4: 218-248. Cultural S. A., La Habana.
    • Andrews, F.W. in Andrews, F.W. (1956). Convolvulaceae The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 102-125. T.Buncle & co., LTD., Arbroath, Scotland.
    • Ooststroom, S.J. van & R.D. Hoogland (1953). Convolvulaceae Flora Malesiana 4: 388-512. Noordhoff-Kolff N.V., Djakarta.
    • Hill, A.W. & Sandwith, N. in Williams, R.O. (1953). Fl. Trinidad & Tobago Convolvs. Flora of Trinidad and Tobago 2(4): 210-240. Government Printing Office, Port-of-Spain.
    • Tisserant, P. Ch. (1950). Catalogue de la flora de l'Oubangui-Chari Mémoires de l'Institut d'Études Centrafricaines 2: 1-166.
    • Christophersen, E. (1938). Flow. Pl. Samoa II: Convolvulaceae Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 154: 37-39.

    Not accepted by

    • Wiggins, I.L. in Wiggins, I.L. (1980). Convolvulaceae Flora of Baja California: 373-385. Stanford Univ. Press. [Cited as Calonyction aculeatum.]
    • Standley, P.C. & Williams, L.O. (1970). Convolvulaceae Fieldiana Botany New Series 24 (9: 1,2): 4-85. Field Museum of Natural History. [Cited as Calonyction aculeatum.]
    • Matuda, E. in Matuda, E. (1966). Las Convolvulaceas del estado de Mexico Las Convolvulaceae del estado de Mexico: 1-56. Govierno del Estado de Mexico, Direccion de Agricultura y Ganaderia. [Cited as Calonyction aculeatum.]
    • Standley, P. C. (1938). Convolvulaceae Publications of Field Museum of Natural History, Botanical Series 18(3): 960-974. [Cited as Calonyction aculeatum.]
    • Standley, P.C. in Standley, P.A. (1924). Convolvulaceae Trees and Shrubs of Mexico, Convolvulaceae pp. 1194-1208. 23(4): 1194-1208. Contributions U.S. Natl. Herbar. 23(4) 1924. [Cited as Calonyction aculeatum.]
    • Boldingh, I. in Boldingh, I. (1909). Convolvulaceae Flora of the Futch West Indian Islands, vol. I: St. Eustatius, Saba, and St. Martin 1: 161-163. E.J. Brill. [Cited as Calonyction speciosum.]
    • Hallier, H. (1897). Bausteine zu einer Monographie der Convolvulaceen. 6. Die Gattung Calonyction Bulletin de l'Herbier Boissier 5: 1020-1052. l'Herbier Boissier. [Cited as Calonyction bona-nox.]

    Literature

    Kew Bulletin
    • Linnaeus 1753: 161.
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Meeuse in Bothalia 6: 765.
    • van Ooststr. in Blumea 3: 547
    • Sp. Pl. 161 (1753)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Staples, G., Phoutthavong, K., Traiperm, P. & Pornpongrueng, P. (2014). A corrected and expanded checklist of Convolvulaceae from Lao PDR Thai Journal of Botany 6: 79-87.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Press, J.R., K.K. Shrestha, & D.A. Sutton (2012). Nepal Cklist. Convolvulaceae Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal - online Natural History Museum et al.
    • Johnson, R.W. (2012). Convolvulaceae Australian Plant Census Council of Heads of Australian Herbaria.
    • Bhellum, B.L. & Magotra, R. (2011). Flora of Jammu and Kashmir state (family Convolvulaceae): a census Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 35: 732-736.
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