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This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America. It is used to treat unspecified medicinal disorders.

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 1850 m.; Andes, Orinoquia, Pacífico.
Morphology General Habit
Árbol
Conservation
No Evaluada

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Distribution
Native from Colombia.
Ecology
Alt. 0 - 1850 m.
Vernacular
Medsiyen.

[FZ]

Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

Morphology General Habit
An eglandular shrub or small tree up to 7 m tall.
Morphology General Bark
Bark light brown to olive grey-green, smooth, papery, peeling.
Morphology General Wood
Wood soft.
Morphology Branches
Branchlets thick, semisucculent.
Morphology General Exudate
Latex copious, watery, sticky.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules 0.5 mm long, subulate, fugacious.
Morphology Leaves Petiole
Petioles up to 20 cm long.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf blades 5–15 × 5–15 cm, ovate, pentagonal or shallowly 5-lobed, shallowly to deeply cordate at the base, sparingly puberulous along the main nerves beneath and otherwise subglabrous when young, later glabrescent, 7–9-nerved from the base; the median lobe usually acutely acuminate, the lateral lobes subacute to obtuse or rounded.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences up to 10 cm long, subterminal or supra-axillary, often paired, subcorymbiform, sparingly puberulous to subglabrous; peduncle up to 6 cm long; bracts up to 8 mm long, linear-lanceolate, acute, entire, sparingly puberulous to subglabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers: pedicels up to 4 mm long; calyx 5 mm long, lobes 3.5 × 2.5 mm, elliptic-ovate, rounded, entire, eglandular, sparingly puberulous, green; petals 7 × 3 mm, laterally coherent for about half their length, oblong, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish-yellow; disk glands 5, free, c. 1 mm tall, turbinate-cylindric, truncate; stamens 8, the 5 outer 5 mm long and fused for two-fifths their length, the 3 inner 6 mm long and fused for half their length, filaments glabrous, anthers c. 2 mm long, linear. Female flowers: pedicels 3 mm long, extending to 1 cm in fruit, stouter than in the male, puberulous; calyx lobes ± free to the base, unequal, 5 × 2 cm or 7 × 3 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, entire, eglandular, puberulous; petals 6.5 × 3 mm, free, elliptic-oblong, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish-yellow; disk glands 5, free, 1 × 1 mm, somewhat flattened, suborbicular; staminodes 10, up to 1 mm long, often minute, orange-tipped; ovary 2.5 × 2 mm, ovoid-ellipsoid, somewhat 3-lobed, tapered upwards into the stylar column, smooth, glabrous; styles 2.5 mm long, united for c. two-thirds their length, divaricate, stigmas capitate, unequally 4-fid, smooth.
sex Male
Male flowers: pedicels up to 4 mm long; calyx 5 mm long, lobes 3.5 × 2.5 mm, elliptic-ovate, rounded, entire, eglandular, sparingly puberulous, green; petals 7 × 3 mm, laterally coherent for about half their length, oblong, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish-yellow; disk glands 5, free, c. 1 mm tall, turbinate-cylindric, truncate; stamens 8, the 5 outer 5 mm long and fused for two-fifths their length, the 3 inner 6 mm long and fused for half their length, filaments glabrous, anthers c. 2 mm long, linear.
sex Female
Female flowers: pedicels 3 mm long, extending to 1 cm in fruit, stouter than in the male, puberulous; calyx lobes ± free to the base, unequal, 5 × 2 cm or 7 × 3 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, entire, eglandular, puberulous; petals 6.5 × 3 mm, free, elliptic-oblong, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish-yellow; disk glands 5, free, 1 × 1 mm, somewhat flattened, suborbicular; staminodes 10, up to 1 mm long, often minute, orange-tipped; ovary 2.5 × 2 mm, ovoid-ellipsoid, somewhat 3-lobed, tapered upwards into the stylar column, smooth, glabrous; styles 2.5 mm long, united for c. two-thirds their length, divaricate, stigmas capitate, unequally 4-fid, smooth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruits 2.5–3 × 2–2.5 cm, ellipsoid, slightly 3-lobed, ± smooth, loculicidally dehiscent, green.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 1.5–1.7 × 0.9–1 × 0.7–0.8 cm, ellipsoid to subcylindric, dull, blackish, minutely buff-punctate, caruncle c. 2 × 4 mm, depressed-conic, mauve-grey when dry.

[FTEA]

Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

Morphology General Habit
A ± glabrous shrub or small tree up to 8 m. tall, although usually not exceeding 6 m.
Morphology General Bark
Bark smooth, shiny, greenish brown or yellowish grey, peeling off as translucent, papery scales; slash emitting a copious clear pink exudate.
Morphology Stem
Stems rather fleshy, copiously emitting a colourless watery or somewhat milky sap when cut.
Morphology General Shoots
Young shoots pale greyish brown or yellowish brown.
Morphology Leaves
Leaves long-petiolate; leaf-blade broadly ovate in outline, usually shallowly 5-lobed but sometimes ± elobate, 7–13(–18) cm. long, 7–14(–18) cm. wide, the median lobe usually acutely acuminate, the laterals acute, obtuse or rounded, usually entire but sometimes remotely and obscurely denticulate, shallowly to deeply cordate, 7–9-nerved from the base, sparingly puberulous along the nerves beneath at first, otherwise glabrous, dark green; petiole (3–)10–15(–20) cm. long.
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules minute, subulate, less than 0.5 mm. long, very fugacious.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences subcorymbiform, often paired, supra-axillary, up to 9 cm. long, extending to 12 cm. in fruit, with a clear scape up to ± 5 cm.; scape sparingly pubescent or subglabrous, upper peduncles more evenly pubescent; bracts elliptic-lanceolate, ± 1 cm. long, acutely acuminate, entire, sparingly pubescent or subglabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Male flowers:calyx-lobes ovate, 2 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, obtuse or rounded, entire, ± glabrous; petals fused for half their length to form a gamopetalous corolla, the lobes of which are oblong-ovate, ± 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish yellow; disc-glands free, erect, irregularly crenellate, rounded; stamens 8, 3 mm. long, the 5 outer united only at the base, the 3 inner with the filaments completely fused, anthers elliptic, 1.5 mm. long. Female flowers:calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, 5 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, acute, entire, sparingly pubescent without, pilose within at the base; petals free or lightly cohering, elliptic-oblong, 6 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, ± rounded, glabrous without, pilose within in the middle, greenish yellow; disc-glands free, ± flattened, transversely ovate, rounded-truncate; staminodes 10, the 5 opposite the glands 1 mm. long, the others 0.5 mm. long, whitish with orange tips; ovary ovoid-ellipsoid and subtrilobed, 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, narrowed towards the apex, glabrous; styles united at the base, 2 mm. long, stigmas elongate, erect, thickened, bifid.
sex Male
Male flowers:calyx-lobes ovate, 2 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, obtuse or rounded, entire, ± glabrous; petals fused for half their length to form a gamopetalous corolla, the lobes of which are oblong-ovate, ± 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish yellow; disc-glands free, erect, irregularly crenellate, rounded; stamens 8, 3 mm. long, the 5 outer united only at the base, the 3 inner with the filaments completely fused, anthers elliptic, 1.5 mm. long.
sex Female
Female flowers:calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, 5 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, acute, entire, sparingly pubescent without, pilose within at the base; petals free or lightly cohering, elliptic-oblong, 6 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, ± rounded, glabrous without, pilose within in the middle, greenish yellow; disc-glands free, ± flattened, transversely ovate, rounded-truncate; staminodes 10, the 5 opposite the glands 1 mm. long, the others 0.5 mm. long, whitish with orange tips; ovary ovoid-ellipsoid and subtrilobed, 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, narrowed towards the apex, glabrous; styles united at the base, 2 mm. long, stigmas elongate, erect, thickened, bifid.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid, scarcely trilobed, 2.5–3 cm. long, 2 cm. diameter, yellowish at first, becoming blackish, dehiscing loculicidally, or subdrupaceous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds compressed ovoid-ellipsoid to ellipsoid-cylindric, 1.7 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, black, with numerous minute buff-coloured pits evenly disposed over the surface, caruncle minute.
Habitat
Much used a a hedge-plant around settlements and escaping into natural vegetation, sometimes far from habitations; sea-level to 1700 m.
Distribution
K4 K5 K7 T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U2 U3 Z native of tropical America from Mexico and the West Indies to Chile, and widely cultivated and naturalized in the Old World tropics generallythe ‘Physic Nut’

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology General Habit
Shrub or small tree, glabrous
Morphology Leaves
Leaves alternate; blade broadly ovate, usually shallowly 5-lobed, 7–13(–18) x 7–14(–18) cm, cordate at base, acuminate at tip, usually entire; petiole (3–)10–15(–20) cm long
Morphology Leaves Stipules
Stipules minute, soon falling off
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences up to 12 cm long, glabrous or sparsely pubescent
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Female flowers with 10 staminodes; ovary glabrous Male flowers: sepals 2 mm long, obtuse; petals united for half their length, with lobes c. 3 mm long
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid, 25–30 x 20 mm, tardily dehiscent or subdrupaceous, becoming blackish
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds 17 x 10 mm, black, with minute paler pits, and a 4 mm wide caruncle.
Distribution
Cultivated at least in S1, S2 and S3, sometimes naturalized native of tropical America, since long introduced in the Old World tropics.
Vernacular
Cantal-muluug (Somali), physic nut (English).

[FWTA]

Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

Morphology General Habit
A shrub or small tree, up to 20 ft. high, with thick glabrous branchlets
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers yellowish-green
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Fruit ellipsoid, scarcely lobed, about 1 in. long, black when ripe
Note
Commonly cultivated in our area.

[UPB]
Use Materials
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Materials Unspecified Materials Chemicals
Materials (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (State of the World's Plants 2016, Instituto Humboldt 2014).

[FSOM]
Use
The roasted seeds are used as a purgative. The oil from the seeds is used in trials for making biodiesel fuel in various parts of the world. Cultivated as a hedge-plant

Native to:

Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Chile North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

Introduced into:

Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Caroline Is., Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Marianas, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tuvalu, Uganda, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Yemen, Zaïre

Spanish
Jaquillo, purga, piñón de purga, coquillo, árbol santo, piñón blanco, higo de infierno, tua-tua, medsiyen, tártago, piñón, piñón botija, piñón de indias, túa-túa, piñón de purga, mañolo.

Jatropha curcas L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Mar 1, 2005 Mendoza, M. [291], Bolivia K000716417
Nov 16, 2000 Hoare, A. [195], Malaysia 71313.000
Jan 1, 1992 Hinton, G.B. [9106], Mexico K000813211
Jan 1, 1992 Plowman, T. [2453], Peru K000822838
Jan 1, 1992 Ratter, J.A. [3553], Brazil K001210018
Jan 1, 1992 André, E.F. [439], Colombia K000822835
Jan 1, 1992 Lister, J.R.A. [22], Venezuela K000822827
Jan 1, 1992 Lehmann. [B.T.906], Colombia K000822834
Jan 1, 1992 Hinton, G.B. [10362], Mexico K000813209
Jan 1, 1992 Williams, R.S. [435], Bolivia K000822829
Jan 1, 1992 Langalseé, E. [s.n.], Mexico K000813210
Jan 1, 1992 Arnoldo, Frater. [576], Netherlands Antilles K000822828
Jan 1, 1990 Beck, S.G. [17309], Bolivia K000822831
Aug 1, 1960 Shantz, H. L. [708], Congo K000254656
Jun 7, 1933 Lei, C. L. [720], China K000254617
Harrison, S.G. [1620], Guyana 15812.000
Ash [1077], Ethiopia 33430.000
Tanner, R.E.S. [584], Tanzania 5257.000
Coode [6105], Indonesia 55472.000
Lewis, G.P. [1156], Brazil 55985.000
Chapman, J. D. [2877 / 46166], Nigeria K000254642
Matuda, E. [2618], Mexico K000813206
Ash, J. [1077 sheet 1/2], Ethiopia K000776522
Bally, P.R.O. [8930], Kenya K000776800
Bally, P.R.O. [1573], Kenya K000776802
Greenway P.J. [10254] K000776809
Koritscherien, H. [1690] K000776811
Harley, R.M. [9474] K000776815
Vaughan, J.H. [1423] K000776819
Faueken, H. [2419] K000776820
André, E.F. [K1636] K000822824
Mathias, M.E. [3626], Peru K000822837
Green, E.M.C. [2295], Mozambique K000776965
Trapuell, G. [1256], Zimbabwe K000776970
White, F. [2981], Zimbabwe K000776971
Lykke A.M. [20], Senegal K000388036
Dubs, B. [1926], Brazil K001210014
Burchell [1508], Brazil K001210017
Spruce [967], Brazil K001210022
Tsang, Wai-Tak [23/15522] K000254619
White, F. [3468], Zimbabwe K000776972
Dale, I.R. [3435], Kenya K000776801
s.coll. [s.n.], Kenya K000776806
s.c. [182], Kenya K000776805
Mavi, S. [1423], Zimbabwe K000845209
Matuda, E. [2618], Mexico K000813207
Mogg, A.O.D. [31698], Mozambique K000776964
Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000776962
Burchell [8238-2], Brazil K001210020
Wickens, G.E. [1755], Sudan K000776517
Wickens, G.E. [38], Sudan K000776516
Friis, I [1090], Sudan K000776521
Friis, I. [1927], Ethiopia K000776523
Hutchinson, P.C. [3368], Peru K000822840
Bullock, A.A. [3931] K000776808
Laurence, E. [205] K000776968
Steinbach, J. [6636], Bolivia K000822826
Hepper, F.N. [3774], Mali K000386631
Ratter, J.A. [3953], Brazil K001210015
Bang, A.M. [1558], Bolivia K000822830
Pocs, T. [89047], Tanzania K000776818
Johnston, H.H. [46] K000776967
Balée, W.L. [819], Brazil K001210021
Wilson, E. H. [9907] K000254618
Arevalo, E. [357], Peru K000822839
Holton, I.F. [855], Colombia K000822836
Magaji, S. O. [767], Nigeria K000254639
Buchanan [250], Malawi K000776966
Triana, J. [3651], Colombia K000822832
Smith, H.H. [1473], Colombia K000822833
Phiri, R. [124], Zambia K000776975
Bally, P.R.O. [8506], Kenya K000776803
Fendler, A. [1205], Venezuela K000822825
Seuesei, S.R. [1059] K000776814
Meyer, F.G. [7987], Ethiopia K000776524
Newman, J.L. [96], Tanzania K000776817
Thomerson, A.C.B. [601], Ethiopia K000776525
Menyhart. [925], Mozambique K000776963
D.B.F. [4063], Zimbabwe K000776974
Tanner, R.E.S. [584] K000776810
Lawrence, E. [205], Malawi K000776969
Cooke, B.K. [68], Sudan K000776520
White, F. [3478], Zimbabwe K000776973
Smifesay, N.D. [7180], Sudan K000776519
Hornby, H.E. [424] K000776812
Chase, N.L. [7601], Zimbabwe K000776977
Ash, J. [1077 sheet 2], Ethiopia K000776526
Lehase, N.L. [3328], Zimbabwe K000776976
Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001210019
Glaziou, A. [8923], Brazil K001210016
s.c. [2684] K000776813
Newbould, J. [2631] K000776816
Ortega, R. [332], Mexico K000813208
Robertson, S.A. [7587], Kenya Jatropha acerifolia K000776863

First published in Sp. Pl.: 1006 (1753)

Accepted by

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Literature

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 128, 143.
  • Chev. Bot. 569
  • Pax in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 1: 77, fig. 30
  • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 791

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Bernal, R., Galeano, G., Rodríguez, A., Sarmiento, H. & Gutiérrez, M. (2017). Nombres comunes de las plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014
  • Kew's Economic Botany collection in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
  • Barthelat, F. (2019). La flore illustrée de Mayotte: 1-687. Biotope éditions.
  • Berhaut, J. (1975). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 3: 1-634. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 3: 1-89. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
  • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dehgan, B. (2012). Flora Neotropica, Monograph 110: 1-273.
  • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
  • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.P., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
  • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
  • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
  • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
  • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
  • Wu, Z.Y., Raven, P.H. & Hong, D.Y. (eds.) (2008). Flora of China 11: 1-622. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
  • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A. Engler & O. Drude, Die Vegetation Der Erde, IX, Pflanzenwelt Afrikas 3(2): 118 (1921).
  • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 218 (1974).
  • Chiovenda, Fl. Somala 2: 394 (1932).
  • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 206 (1961).
  • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 200 (1962).
  • Hutch. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 791 (1912).
  • J. Léonard, Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 8(1): 90 (1962).
  • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 216 (1949).
  • Keay in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1(1): 397 (1958).
  • L., Sp. Pl.: 1006 (1753).
  • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 1080 (1866).
  • Pax in A. Engler, Das Pflanzenreich IV. 147(1): 77, t. 30 (1910).
  • Pax in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 240 (1895).
  • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 2: 228 (1983).
  • Verdcourt & Trump, Common Poisonous Plants of East Africa: 56 (1969).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
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Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
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Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
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Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
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Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
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Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Neotropikey
Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
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Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
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