1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Jatropha L.
      1. Jatropha curcas L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to Tropical America.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    An eglandular shrub or small tree up to 7 m tall.
    Bark
    Bark light brown to olive grey-green, smooth, papery, peeling.
    Wood
    Wood soft.
    Branches
    Branchlets thick, semisucculent.
    Exudate
    Latex copious, watery, sticky.
    Stipules
    Stipules 0.5 mm long, subulate, fugacious.
    Petiole
    Petioles up to 20 cm long.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf blades 5–15 × 5–15 cm, ovate, pentagonal or shallowly 5-lobed, shallowly to deeply cordate at the base, sparingly puberulous along the main nerves beneath and otherwise subglabrous when young, later glabrescent, 7–9-nerved from the base; the median lobe usually acutely acuminate, the lateral lobes subacute to obtuse or rounded.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences up to 10 cm long, subterminal or supra-axillary, often paired, subcorymbiform, sparingly puberulous to subglabrous; peduncle up to 6 cm long; bracts up to 8 mm long, linear-lanceolate, acute, entire, sparingly puberulous to subglabrous.
    Flowers
    Male flowers: pedicels up to 4 mm long; calyx 5 mm long, lobes 3.5 × 2.5 mm, elliptic-ovate, rounded, entire, eglandular, sparingly puberulous, green; petals 7 × 3 mm, laterally coherent for about half their length, oblong, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish-yellow; disk glands 5, free, c. 1 mm tall, turbinate-cylindric, truncate; stamens 8, the 5 outer 5 mm long and fused for two-fifths their length, the 3 inner 6 mm long and fused for half their length, filaments glabrous, anthers c. 2 mm long, linear. Female flowers: pedicels 3 mm long, extending to 1 cm in fruit, stouter than in the male, puberulous; calyx lobes ± free to the base, unequal, 5 × 2 cm or 7 × 3 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, entire, eglandular, puberulous; petals 6.5 × 3 mm, free, elliptic-oblong, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish-yellow; disk glands 5, free, 1 × 1 mm, somewhat flattened, suborbicular; staminodes 10, up to 1 mm long, often minute, orange-tipped; ovary 2.5 × 2 mm, ovoid-ellipsoid, somewhat 3-lobed, tapered upwards into the stylar column, smooth, glabrous; styles 2.5 mm long, united for c. two-thirds their length, divaricate, stigmas capitate, unequally 4-fid, smooth.
    Male
    Male flowers: pedicels up to 4 mm long; calyx 5 mm long, lobes 3.5 × 2.5 mm, elliptic-ovate, rounded, entire, eglandular, sparingly puberulous, green; petals 7 × 3 mm, laterally coherent for about half their length, oblong, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish-yellow; disk glands 5, free, c. 1 mm tall, turbinate-cylindric, truncate; stamens 8, the 5 outer 5 mm long and fused for two-fifths their length, the 3 inner 6 mm long and fused for half their length, filaments glabrous, anthers c. 2 mm long, linear.
    Female
    Female flowers: pedicels 3 mm long, extending to 1 cm in fruit, stouter than in the male, puberulous; calyx lobes ± free to the base, unequal, 5 × 2 cm or 7 × 3 cm, elliptic-lanceolate, obtuse, entire, eglandular, puberulous; petals 6.5 × 3 mm, free, elliptic-oblong, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish-yellow; disk glands 5, free, 1 × 1 mm, somewhat flattened, suborbicular; staminodes 10, up to 1 mm long, often minute, orange-tipped; ovary 2.5 × 2 mm, ovoid-ellipsoid, somewhat 3-lobed, tapered upwards into the stylar column, smooth, glabrous; styles 2.5 mm long, united for c. two-thirds their length, divaricate, stigmas capitate, unequally 4-fid, smooth.
    Fruits
    Fruits 2.5–3 × 2–2.5 cm, ellipsoid, slightly 3-lobed, ± smooth, loculicidally dehiscent, green.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1.5–1.7 × 0.9–1 × 0.7–0.8 cm, ellipsoid to subcylindric, dull, blackish, minutely buff-punctate, caruncle c. 2 × 4 mm, depressed-conic, mauve-grey when dry.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    A ± glabrous shrub or small tree up to 8 m. tall, although usually not exceeding 6 m.
    Bark
    Bark smooth, shiny, greenish brown or yellowish grey, peeling off as translucent, papery scales; slash emitting a copious clear pink exudate.
    Stem
    Stems rather fleshy, copiously emitting a colourless watery or somewhat milky sap when cut.
    Shoots
    Young shoots pale greyish brown or yellowish brown.
    Leaves
    Leaves long-petiolate; leaf-blade broadly ovate in outline, usually shallowly 5-lobed but sometimes ± elobate, 7–13(–18) cm. long, 7–14(–18) cm. wide, the median lobe usually acutely acuminate, the laterals acute, obtuse or rounded, usually entire but sometimes remotely and obscurely denticulate, shallowly to deeply cordate, 7–9-nerved from the base, sparingly puberulous along the nerves beneath at first, otherwise glabrous, dark green; petiole (3–)10–15(–20) cm. long.
    Stipules
    Stipules minute, subulate, less than 0.5 mm. long, very fugacious.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences subcorymbiform, often paired, supra-axillary, up to 9 cm. long, extending to 12 cm. in fruit, with a clear scape up to ± 5 cm.; scape sparingly pubescent or subglabrous, upper peduncles more evenly pubescent; bracts elliptic-lanceolate, ± 1 cm. long, acutely acuminate, entire, sparingly pubescent or subglabrous.
    Flowers
    Male flowers:calyx-lobes ovate, 2 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, obtuse or rounded, entire, ± glabrous; petals fused for half their length to form a gamopetalous corolla, the lobes of which are oblong-ovate, ± 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish yellow; disc-glands free, erect, irregularly crenellate, rounded; stamens 8, 3 mm. long, the 5 outer united only at the base, the 3 inner with the filaments completely fused, anthers elliptic, 1.5 mm. long. Female flowers:calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, 5 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, acute, entire, sparingly pubescent without, pilose within at the base; petals free or lightly cohering, elliptic-oblong, 6 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, ± rounded, glabrous without, pilose within in the middle, greenish yellow; disc-glands free, ± flattened, transversely ovate, rounded-truncate; staminodes 10, the 5 opposite the glands 1 mm. long, the others 0.5 mm. long, whitish with orange tips; ovary ovoid-ellipsoid and subtrilobed, 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, narrowed towards the apex, glabrous; styles united at the base, 2 mm. long, stigmas elongate, erect, thickened, bifid.
    Male
    Male flowers:calyx-lobes ovate, 2 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, obtuse or rounded, entire, ± glabrous; petals fused for half their length to form a gamopetalous corolla, the lobes of which are oblong-ovate, ± 3 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, rounded, glabrous without, pilose within, greenish yellow; disc-glands free, erect, irregularly crenellate, rounded; stamens 8, 3 mm. long, the 5 outer united only at the base, the 3 inner with the filaments completely fused, anthers elliptic, 1.5 mm. long.
    Female
    Female flowers:calyx-lobes ovate-lanceolate, 5 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, acute, entire, sparingly pubescent without, pilose within at the base; petals free or lightly cohering, elliptic-oblong, 6 mm. long, 2.5 mm. wide, ± rounded, glabrous without, pilose within in the middle, greenish yellow; disc-glands free, ± flattened, transversely ovate, rounded-truncate; staminodes 10, the 5 opposite the glands 1 mm. long, the others 0.5 mm. long, whitish with orange tips; ovary ovoid-ellipsoid and subtrilobed, 2 mm. long, 2 mm. diameter, narrowed towards the apex, glabrous; styles united at the base, 2 mm. long, stigmas elongate, erect, thickened, bifid.
    Fruits
    Fruit ellipsoid, scarcely trilobed, 2.5–3 cm. long, 2 cm. diameter, yellowish at first, becoming blackish, dehiscing loculicidally, or subdrupaceous.
    Seeds
    Seeds compressed ovoid-ellipsoid to ellipsoid-cylindric, 1.7 cm. long, 1 cm. wide, black, with numerous minute buff-coloured pits evenly disposed over the surface, caruncle minute.
    Habitat
    Much used a a hedge-plant around settlements and escaping into natural vegetation, sometimes far from habitations; sea-level to 1700 m.
    Distribution
    native of tropical America from Mexico and the West Indies to Chile, and widely cultivated and naturalized in the Old World tropics generallythe ‘Physic Nut’ K4 K5 K7 T1 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 U2 U3 Z
    [FWTA]

    Euphorbiaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A shrub or small tree, up to 20 ft. high, with thick glabrous branchlets
    Flowers
    Flowers yellowish-green
    Fruits
    Fruit ellipsoid, scarcely lobed, about 1 in. long, black when ripe
    Note
    Commonly cultivated in our area.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Chile North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Windward Is.

    Introduced into:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Burundi, Cambodia, Cape Verde, Cayman Is., Central African Repu, Chad, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Hawaii, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Senegal, Seychelles, South China Sea, Southwest Caribbean, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Tuvalu, Uganda, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Yemen, Zaïre

    Jatropha curcas L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2005 Mendoza, M. [291], Bolivia K000716417
    Nov 16, 2000 Hoare, A. [195], Malaysia 71313.000
    Jan 1, 1992 Hinton, G.B. [9106], Mexico K000813211
    Jan 1, 1992 Hinton, G.B. [10362], Mexico K000813209
    Jan 1, 1992 Plowman, T. [2453], Peru K000822838
    Jan 1, 1992 Ratter, J.A. [3553], Brazil K001210018
    Jan 1, 1992 André, E.F. [439], Colombia K000822835
    Jan 1, 1992 Lister, J.R.A. [22], Venezuela K000822827
    Jan 1, 1992 Williams, R.S. [435], Bolivia K000822829
    Jan 1, 1992 Langalseé, E. [s.n.], Mexico K000813210
    Jan 1, 1992 Arnoldo, Frater. [576], Netherlands Antilles K000822828
    Jan 1, 1992 Lehmann. [B.T.906], Colombia K000822834
    Jan 1, 1990 Beck, S.G. [17309], Bolivia K000822831
    Aug 1, 1960 Shantz, H. L. [708], Congo K000254656
    Jun 7, 1933 Lei, C. L. [720], China K000254617
    Harrison, S.G. [1620], Guyana 15812.000
    Ash [1077], Ethiopia 33430.000
    Bally, P.R.O. [8930], Kenya K000776800
    Bally, P.R.O. [1573], Kenya K000776802
    Bally, P.R.O. [8506], Kenya K000776803
    Bullock, A.A. [3931] K000776808
    Harley, R.M. [9474] K000776815
    White, F. [2981], Zimbabwe K000776971
    White, F. [3468], Zimbabwe K000776972
    White, F. [3478], Zimbabwe K000776973
    Hepper, F.N. [3774], Mali K000386631
    Tanner, R.E.S. [584], Tanzania 5257.000
    Tanner, R.E.S. [584] K000776810
    Hornby, H.E. [424] K000776812
    Newbould, J. [2631] K000776816
    Dale, I.R. [3435], Kenya K000776801
    Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000776962
    Wickens, G.E. [38], Sudan K000776516
    Wickens, G.E. [1755], Sudan K000776517
    Mogg, A.O.D. [31698], Mozambique K000776964
    Lewis, G.P. [1156], Brazil 55985.000
    Friis, I. [1927], Ethiopia K000776523
    Coode [6105], Indonesia 55472.000
    Ash, J. [1077 sheet 1/2], Ethiopia K000776522
    Ash, J. [1077 sheet 2], Ethiopia K000776526
    Ratter, J.A. [3953], Brazil K001210015
    Smith, H.H. [1473], Colombia K000822833
    Fendler, A. [1205], Venezuela K000822825
    Johnston, H.H. [46] K000776967
    Matuda, E. [2618], Mexico K000813206
    Matuda, E. [2618], Mexico K000813207
    Dubs, B. [1926], Brazil K001210014
    Holton, I.F. [855], Colombia K000822836
    Buchanan [250], Malawi K000776966
    Wilson, E. H. [9907] K000254618
    André, E.F. [K1636] K000822824
    Mavi, S. [1423], Zimbabwe K000845209
    Vaughan, J.H. [1423] K000776819
    Meyer, F.G. [7987], Ethiopia K000776524
    D.B.F. [4063], Zimbabwe K000776974
    Hutchinson, P.C. [3368], Peru K000822840
    Chapman, J. D. [2877 / 46166], Nigeria K000254642
    Lawrence, E. [205], Malawi K000776969
    Balée, W.L. [819], Brazil K001210021
    Ortega, R. [332], Mexico K000813208
    Laurence, E. [205] K000776968
    Mathias, M.E. [3626], Peru K000822837
    Pocs, T. [89047], Tanzania K000776818
    Thomerson, A.C.B. [601], Ethiopia K000776525
    Bang, A.M. [1558], Bolivia K000822830
    Steinbach, J. [6636], Bolivia K000822826
    Triana, J. [3651], Colombia K000822832
    Friis, I [1090], Sudan K000776521
    Glaziou, A. [8923], Brazil K001210016
    s.c. [182], Kenya K000776805
    s.c. [2684] K000776813
    Tsang, Wai-Tak [23/15522] K000254619
    Magaji, S. O. [767], Nigeria K000254639
    s.coll. [s.n.], Kenya K000776806
    Smifesay, N.D. [7180], Sudan K000776519
    Cooke, B.K. [68], Sudan K000776520
    Greenway P.J. [10254] K000776809
    Koritscherien, H. [1690] K000776811
    Seuesei, S.R. [1059] K000776814
    Newman, J.L. [96], Tanzania K000776817
    Faueken, H. [2419] K000776820
    Arevalo, E. [357], Peru K000822839
    Menyhart. [925], Mozambique K000776963
    Green, E.M.C. [2295], Mozambique K000776965
    Trapuell, G. [1256], Zimbabwe K000776970
    Phiri, R. [124], Zambia K000776975
    Lehase, N.L. [3328], Zimbabwe K000776976
    Chase, N.L. [7601], Zimbabwe K000776977
    Lykke A.M. [20], Senegal K000388036
    Spruce [967], Brazil K001210022
    Burchell [1508], Brazil K001210017
    Burchell [8238-2], Brazil K001210020
    Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001210019
    Robertson, S.A. [7587], Kenya Jatropha acerifolia K000776863

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1006 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Dehgan, B. (2012). Flora Neotropica, Monograph 110: 1-273.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Vikraman, R.R., Pandurangan, A.G. & Thulasidas, G. (2008). A study on the garden escaped exotics of Thiruvananthapuram district, Kerala Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 765-781.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666.
    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Florence, J. (1997). Flore de la Polynésie Française 1: 1-393. ORSTOM éditions, Paris.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Friedmann, F. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. ORSTOM éditions.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut Fl. Sén. 128, 143.
    • Chev. Bot. 569
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 791
    • Pax in Engl. Pflanzenr. Euph. 1: 77, fig. 30
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2016). Flora of North America North of Mexico 12: 1-603. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Evenhuis, N.L. & Eldredge, L.G. (eds.) (2012). Records of the Hawaii biological survey for 2011. Part II: plants Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 113: 1-102.
    • Dehgan, B. (2012). Flora Neotropica, Monograph 110: 1-273.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Chakrabarty, T. & Balakrishnan, N.P. (2009). The family Euphorbiaceae in Sikkim state, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 483-539.
    • Pandey, R.P. (2009). Floristic diversity of Ferrargunj forest area in South Andaman Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 33: 747-768.
    • Buragohain, S. & Sarma, G.C. (2009). The exotic weeds of Guwahati, Assam and their role in employment generation Pleione 3(1): 45-49.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • van Welzen, P.C. & Chayamarit, K. (2007). Flora of Thailand 8(2): 305-592. The Forest Herbarium, National Park, Wildlife and Plant Conservation Department, Bangkok.
    • Balakrishnan, N.P. & Chakrabarty, T. (2007). The family Euphorbiaceae in India. A synopsis of its profile, taxonomy and bibliography: 1-500. Bishen Singh Mahendra Pal Singh, Dehra Dun.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Linares, J.L. (2003 publ. 2005). Lista comentado de los árboles nativos y cultivados en la República de El Salvador Ceiba; a Scientific and Technical Journal Published by Zamorano 44: 105-268.
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    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0