1. Family: Cucurbitaceae Juss.
    1. Momordica L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and is native to Asia-Tropical, Africa, Pacific and Asia-Temperate..

    [FTEA]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

    Habit
    Small to rather large climbers or trailers
    Leaves
    Leaves simple, or pedately 3–7- or pedately biternately 7–15-foliolate
    Tendrils
    Tendrils simple or proximally bifid, rarely paired at the nodes and then usually spinose
    Bracts
    Probracts usually absent
    Flowers
    Flowers medium to large, white, cream or yellow, monoecious or dioecious Male flowers solitary, umbellate or shortly racemose, or in many-flowered fascicles or pseudopanicles, often subtended by a prominent suborbicular sessile sheathing bract; receptacle-tube relatively short and broad; lobes entire; petals 5, free, entire, 1–3 with an incurved scale inside at the base; stamens 3 (2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous) or 2 (1 triple (2–)3-thecous, 1 double 2-thecous), usually free; thecae arcuate, duplicate or triplicate Female flowers solitary; ovary usually ribbed, tuberculate or papillose; ovules usually many, horizontal, less often few and pendulous and/or erect; stigma 3-lobed
    Male
    Male flowers solitary, umbellate or shortly racemose, or in many-flowered fascicles or pseudopanicles, often subtended by a prominent suborbicular sessile sheathing bract; receptacle-tube relatively short and broad; lobes entire; petals 5, free, entire, 1–3 with an incurved scale inside at the base; stamens 3 (2 double 2-thecous, 1 single 1-thecous) or 2 (1 triple (2–)3-thecous, 1 double 2-thecous), usually free; thecae arcuate, duplicate or triplicate
    Female
    Female flowers solitary; ovary usually ribbed, tuberculate or papillose; ovules usually many, horizontal, less often few and pendulous and/or erect; stigma 3-lobed
    Fruits
    Fruit rather large, ovoid-ellipsoid to elongate-fusiform, fleshy, ornamented with fleshy tubercles, spines or longitudinal wings or ridges, less often merely bluntly angled or subterete, indehiscent or dehiscent ± irregularly or often by 3 valves, and then exposing the seeds enveloped in scarlet pulp hanging from the faces of the valves
    Seeds
    Seeds medium-sized to rather large, usually compressed, the testa nearly always ± sculptured on the faces and 1–2-grooved at the margins
    Figures
    Figs. 2, p. 18, 3, p. 25.
    [FZ]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Prostrate or scandent, usually herbaceous plants.
    Leaves
    Leaves simple or pedately ternately or 2-ternately 3–21-foliolate.
    Tendrils
    Tendrils simple or 2-fid.
    Flowers
    Male flowers solitary, umbellate, shortly racemose or fasciculate, often bracteate; bracts often prominent, more or less cucullate. Receptacle-tube relatively short and broad; lobes entire. Petals 5, free, entire, obtuse to rounded or sometimes retuse, 1–3 with a ventral incurved scale at the base. Stamens 3, two 2-thecous and one 1-thecous, or less often 2, one 3-thecous and the other 2-thecous, free or sometimes with the anthers connate into a head; thecae arcuate, sinuate or triplicate. Flowers white, cream, yellow or orange, monoecious or dioecious. Female flowers solitary, perianth similar to that of male flower but receptacle-tube usually much shorter and lobes often narrower and smaller; ovary ribbed, tuberculate or papillose, rarely smooth; ovules usually many, horizontal, less often few, pendulous and/or erect; stigma 3-lobed.
    Fruits
    Fruit ellipsoid to fusiform, tuberculate, spiny, winged or ribbed, rarely smooth, indehiscent or dehiscent into 3 valves and exposing seeds enveloped in bright red pulp.
    Seeds
    Seeds usually compressed, with sculptured faces and grooved margins with a slight erose median ridge.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Burundi, Cabinda, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cape Verde, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, Djibouti, East Himalaya, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Fiji, Free State, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Mauritania, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, New Guinea, Niger, Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Pakistan, Philippines, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Society Is., Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Togo, Tonga, Uganda, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Extinct in:

    Socotra

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Aruba, Ascension, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Cambodia, Cayman Is., Central American Pac, Colombia, Connecticut, Cook Is., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Galápagos, Georgia, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Korea, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Marianas, Mauritius, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Netherlands Antilles, New Caledonia, New Mexico, Nicobar Is., Niue, Oklahoma, Oman, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Samoa, Solomon Is., Southwest Caribbean, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is.

    Momordica L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 1998 Schmidt, H.H. [2200], Ghana K000040180
    Cable, S. [187], Cameroon 61753.000

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 1009 (1753)

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • —F.T.A. 2: 534.
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Gen. Pl. ed. 5: 440 (1754).
    • Sp. Pl. 1: 1009 (1753)
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • L., Gen. Pl., ed. 5: 440 (1754)
    • Sp. Pl.: 1009 (1753)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0