1. Family: Cucurbitaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Lagenaria Ser.
      1. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to Ethiopia and Tanzania.

    [FTEA]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1967

    Habit
    Climber or trailer to 4.5 m.; stem herbaceous, rather densely hairy.
    Leaves
    Leaves broadly ovate-reniform or suborbicular in outline, cordate, sinuate-toothed, apiculate, hairy beneath and usually also above, 32–230 mm. long, 45–230 mm. broad, undivided or shortly and obscurely palmately 5–9-lobed; lobes rounded; petiole 27–125 mm. long, pubescent, with two small apical lateral conical glands.
    Tendrils
    Tendrils bifid.
    Flowers
    Monoecious. Male flowers solitary on 75–310 mm. long peduncles; receptacle-tube funnel-shaped, slightly bulbous at the base, pubescent, 11–16 mm. long; lobes linear to triangular, 3–7 mm. long; petals white, opening in the evening, broadly obovate, apiculate, 27–45 mm. long, 18–37 mm. broad; anthers oblong, coherent, included; thecae triplicate, also ± contorted especially in lower part of anther. Female flowers on ± 60–70 mm. long stalks; ovary ovoid, villous, 11–17 mm. long, 6–8 mm. across; receptacle-tube ± 2.5 mm. long; lobes acute, ± 3–3.5 mm. long; petals ± 30 mm. long and 24 mm. broad.
    Male
    Male flowers solitary on 75–310 mm. long peduncles; receptacle-tube funnel-shaped, slightly bulbous at the base, pubescent, 11–16 mm. long; lobes linear to triangular, 3–7 mm. long; petals white, opening in the evening, broadly obovate, apiculate, 27–45 mm. long, 18–37 mm. broad; anthers oblong, coherent, included; thecae triplicate, also ± contorted especially in lower part of anther.
    Female
    Female flowers on ± 60–70 mm. long stalks; ovary ovoid, villous, 11–17 mm. long, 6–8 mm. across; receptacle-tube ± 2.5 mm. long; lobes acute, ± 3–3.5 mm. long; petals ± 30 mm. long and 24 mm. broad.
    Fruits
    Fruit large, subglobose, ellipsoid, lageniform, biventricose, clavate or elongated, up to 130 mm. or more in diameter, green, hairy, fleshy, hard-shelled, indehiscent.
    Seeds
    Seeds (fig. 6/9, p. 48) oblong, compressed, slightly tapered, slightly 2-horned on the shoulders at the broader end, smooth with 2 flat longitudinal facial ridges fading towards the narrow end and approaching one another medially at the 2-horned end, ± 17 × 7 × 3.2 mm., in some cultivated forms much larger, irregular and ± rugose.
    Habitat
    Apparently wild in grassland and bushland, also cultivated; 500–1770 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K5 T1 T2 T3 T5 T6 T8 U1 U2 U3 U4 pantropical, but probably introduced outside Africa and Asia
    [FZ]

    Cucurbitaceae, C. Jeffrey. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Vigorous annual.
    Stem
    Stems prostrate or scandent, softly villous.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina 3–40 × 4·5–40 cm., broadly ovate or reniform in outline, cordate, shortly and softly puberulous or pubescent, undivided or incipiently palmately 5–7-lobed, the lobes rounded, shallowly sinuate-dentate, apiculate.
    Petiole
    Petioles 2–30 cm. long, densely pubescent or villous; glands small, somewhat recurved, inserted at the base of the lamina.
    Probract
    Probracts undeveloped.
    Flowers
    Flowers monoecious. male flowers solitary; pedicels 7–31 cm. long, softly hairy or villous; receptacle-tube 1·1–1·6 cm. long, obconic-cylindrical, villous, lobes remote, 2·5–7 × 1–2 mm., subulate-dentiform or triangular-dentiform. Petals 2–4·5 × 1–3·5 cm., white, obovate. Anthers oblong, included. Female flowers on 6–10 cm. long peduncles; ovary 10–25 × 5–8 mm., subglobose to ellipsoid or cylindrical, densely villous; receptacle-lobes and petals similar to those of male flowers.
    Male
    male flowers solitary; pedicels 7–31 cm. long, softly hairy or villous; receptacle-tube 1·1–1·6 cm. long, obconic-cylindrical, villous, lobes remote, 2·5–7 × 1–2 mm., subulate-dentiform or triangular-dentiform. Petals 2–4·5 × 1–3·5 cm., white, obovate. Anthers oblong, included.
    Female
    Female flowers on 6–10 cm. long peduncles; ovary 10–25 × 5–8 mm., subglobose to ellipsoid or cylindrical, densely villous; receptacle-lobes and petals similar to those of male flowers.
    Fruits
    Fruits large, up to 1 m. long and 20 cm. across, subglobose to cylindrical, often ± biventricose or lageniform, green, becoming yellowish when mature.
    Seeds
    Seeds 7–20 mm. long, oblong, truncate and emarginate at the base, with 2 flat facial ridges, in some variants rather irregular and rugose.
    [FWTA]

    Cucurbitaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Vernacular
    The Calabash, Bottle-Gourd or White Pumpkin.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, Congo, Ethiopia, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Ivory Coast, Kenya, Liberia, Niger, Nigeria, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Albania, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil South, Burkina, Cambodia, Canary Is., Christmas I., Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, East Himalaya, Easter Is., Ecuador, El Salvador, Fiji, Florida, Georgia, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Jamaica, Kazakhstan, Kentucky, Korea, Leeward Is., Louisiana, Malawi, Mali, Maluku, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Namibia, New Caledonia, New York, Nicobar Is., North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Oklahoma, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, South Carolina, Swaziland, Texas, Trinidad-Tobago, Uruguay, Venezuela, Virginia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Monkey apple

    Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Ash, J. [1369], Ethiopia 34539.000
    Ash, J. [881], Ethiopia 37862.000
    Philcox, D. [4619], Brazil K001139562
    Philcox, D. [3914], Brazil K001139563
    Anderson, W.R. [9563], Brazil K001139557
    Anderson, W.R. [9563], Brazil K001139561
    Kummrow, R. [2458], Brazil K001139554
    Usteri [93], Brazil K001139558
    Jenman, G.S. [96], Suriname K001139559
    Campbell, D.G. [P22167], Brazil K001139569
    Balée, W.L. [906], Brazil K001139566
    Balée, W.L. [951], Brazil K001139567
    Balée, W.L. [817], Brazil K001139568
    Miers [20332], Brazil K001139564
    Skorupa, L.A. [371], Brazil K001139553
    Burchell [9693-2], Brazil K001139565
    Paciornik, E. [255], Brazil K001139555
    Paciornik, E. [255], Brazil K001139556
    Bernoulli, K.G. [2849], Guatemala K001139560
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6719] Cucurbita lagenaria K001124661
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6719] Cucurbita lagenaria K001124662
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6719] Cucurbita lagenaria K001124663
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6719], Bangladesh Cucurbita lagenaria K001124664
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6719] Cucurbita lagenaria K001124665

    First published in Publ. Field Columb. Mus., Bot. Ser. 3: 435 (1930)

    Accepted by

    • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
    • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2016). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 6 Willdenowia 46: 423-442.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Scholz, S. & al. (2013). 150.- Adiciones a la flora vascular de Fuerteventura (islas Canarias) III Botánica Macaronésica 28: 99-116.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • De Wilde, W.J.J.O. & Duyfjes, B.E.E. (2008). The edible Cucurbitaceae of Thailand and Malesia and the wild forms of the cultivated ones Sandakania 17: 43-91.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Keraudren-Aymonin, M. (1975). Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi), Cucurbitaceae: 1-152. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique.
    • Jeffrey, C. (1967). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Cucurbitaceae: 1-156.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • in Publ. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Chicago Bot. Ser. 3: 435 (1930).
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2017). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 17: 1-434. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.
    • Vangjeli, J. (2017). Flora Albania Atlas 1: 1-933. Koeltz Botanical Books.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • von Raab-Straube, E. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2016). Euro+Med-Checklist Notulae, 6 Willdenowia 46: 423-442.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2015). Flora of North America North of Mexico 6: 1-468. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Scholz, S. & al. (2013). 150.- Adiciones a la flora vascular de Fuerteventura (islas Canarias) III Botánica Macaronésica 28: 99-116.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Rebnner, S.S. & Pandey, A.K. (2013). The Cucurbitaceae of India: Accepted names, synonyms, geographic distribution, and information on images and DNA sequences PhytoKeys 20: 53-118.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Choudhary, R.K., Srivastava, R.C., Das, A.K. & Lee, J. (2012). Floristic diversity assessment and vegetation analysis of Upper Siang district of eastern Himalaya in North East India Korean Journal of Plant Taxonomy 42: 222-246.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Garcia-Mendoza, A.J. & Meave, J.A. (eds.) (2012). Diversidad florística de Oaxaca: de musgos a angiospermas (colecciones y listas de especies), ed. 2: 1-351. Instituto de Biología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia, A Journal of Botanical Research 41: 41-82.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • De Wilde, W.J.J.O. & Duyfjes, B.E.E. (2008). The edible Cucurbitaceae of Thailand and Malesia and the wild forms of the cultivated ones Sandakania 17: 43-91.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(2): 1-456. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Thulin, M. (ed.) (1993). Flora of Somalia 1: 1-493. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Zizka, G. (1991). Flowering plants of Easter island Palmarum Hortus Francofurtensis 3: 1-108.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Bosser, J. & al. (eds.) (1990). Flore des Mascareignes 90-106: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Levin, G.A. & Moran, R. (1989). The vascular flora of isla Socorro, Mexico: 1-71. Dept. of Botany, San Diego Natural History Museum, San Diego.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Smith, A.C. (1981). Flora Vitiensis Nova. A new flora for Fiji (Spermatophytes only) 2: 1-810. Pacific Tropical Botanical Garden, Lawai.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/