1. Family: Urticaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Laportea Gaudich.
      1. Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FTEA]

    Urticaceae, I. Friis University of Copenhagen, Denmark. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1989

    Habit
    Annual herb with somewhat fleshy stems, slightly woody at base, up to ± 1 m. tall or more, little branched, glabrescent to densely covered with stinging hairs up to ± 1 mm. long and soft glandular hairs 1–2 (–3) mm. long.
    Leaves
    Leaves restricted to the top of the stem; stipules linear–lanceolate, fused for ± half their length, glabrous except for a few stinging hairs on the midnerve; petioles 5–15 cm. long, usually densely covered with soft glandular hairs, with a few stinging hairs intermixed; lamina ovate to broadly ovate, 7–20 cm. long, 5.5–14 cm. wide, base broadly cuneate to cordate, margin serrate, on each side with 30–40 teeth up to 0.5 mm. long, apex acute or acuminate; lateral nerves 5–9 pairs, basal pair reaching 10th–12th tooth from apex; upper surface with scattered stiff and stinging hairs and punctiform cystoliths, lower surface with stinging hairs on the nerves.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences bisexual, rarely unisexual, profusely branched panicles on peduncles 4–10 cm. long, overall length 15–20 cm., in the axils of upper leaves and reaching above these, axes covered with glandular hairs, flowers in clusters ± 5 mm. in diameter.
    Male
    Male flowers scattered on the inflorescence and mixed with the ♀ ones or mostly at the base, soon falling, on pedicels ± 1 mm. long; perianth ±1.5 mm. in diameter, 4–5-merous usually with glandular hairs.
    Flowers
    Female flowers densely clustered; pedicels ± 0.5 mm. long, usually slightly winged dorsiventrally; tepals:the two lateral ones ± 0.5 mm. long, the dorsal one half as long, slightly geniculate, usually with glandular hairs, the ventral one shorter; ovary with stigma ± 0.5 mm. long, filiform, ± recurved. Male flowers scattered on the inflorescence and mixed with the ♀ ones or mostly at the base, soon falling, on pedicels ± 1 mm. long; perianth ±1.5 mm. in diameter, 4–5-merous usually with glandular hairs.
    Female
    Female flowers densely clustered; pedicels ± 0.5 mm. long, usually slightly winged dorsiventrally; tepals:the two lateral ones ± 0.5 mm. long, the dorsal one half as long, slightly geniculate, usually with glandular hairs, the ventral one shorter; ovary with stigma ± 0.5 mm. long, filiform, ± recurved.
    Fruits
    Achene ovoid, stipitate, 1(–1.5) mm. long, laterally compressed, on each side with a ridge enclosing a warted area, finally reflexed, dispersed with the perianth.
    Figures
    Fig. 6/F & 7/D.
    Habitat
    In disturbed places in forest or woodland, always in semi-shade, sometimes in rock-crevices; from near sea-level to 1300 m.
    Distribution
    widely distributed in tropical Africa, west to Senegal, north to Ethiopia, south to Angola, Zimbabwe and Mozambiquealso on Madagascar, in Yemen, and throughout tropical Asia from India to Indonesiatropical America, West Indies K4 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 T8 U1 U2 U4 Z
    [FZ]

    Urticaceae, I. Friis. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Habit
    Erect annual monoecious herbs to c. 1 m. tall.
    Stem
    Stems somewhat fleshy above, ± woody below, little branched, leafy in upper part, covered with stinging hairs to c. 1 mm. long and soft glandular hairs 1–2(3) mm. long.
    Leaves
    Leaves 10–15 x 8–12 cm., ovate to broadly ovate; apex acuminate; base rounded to truncate; margin regularly serrate, with 30–40 teeth per side c. 0.5 mm. long; lamina usually with stinging hairs on both sides but without glandular hairs.
    Petiole
    Petiole 5–15 cm. long, usually covered with soft glandular hairs and a few stinging hairs.
    Stipules
    Stipules up to 1 cm. long, linear-lanceolate, fused for ± half their length.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences bisexual, mainly in the axils of the uppermost leaves, consisting of profusely branched panicles up to c. 20 cm. long, on peduncles 4–10 cm. long, axes covered with glandular and stinging hairs.
    Flowers
    Male flowers intermixed with female flowers or mostly at the base of the inflorescences, soon falling, pedicellate, perianth 4–5-merous, 1–2 mm. in diam., usually with glandular hairs on the outside. Female flowers densely clustered, tepals 4 unequal, pedicel unwinged.
    Male
    Male flowers intermixed with female flowers or mostly at the base of the inflorescences, soon falling, pedicellate, perianth 4–5-merous, 1–2 mm. in diam., usually with glandular hairs on the outside.
    Female
    Female flowers densely clustered, tepals 4 unequal, pedicel unwinged.
    Fruits
    Achenes 1–2 mm. long, ovoid, laterally compressed, with circular and rugose markings on the sides, shortly stipitate, shed without the perianth.
    [FWTA]

    Urticaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:2. 1958

    Habit
    A herb 1–5 ft. high
    Ecology
    Mostly in waste places
    Note
    Apparently not always urticating.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Aldabra, Angola, Bahamas, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Repu, Central American Pac, Chad, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Gambia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, Leeward Is., Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Panamá, Peru, Puerto Rico, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Sudan, Sumatera, Suriname, Taiwan, Tanzania, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Windward Is., Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Extinct in:

    Mauritius

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Florida, France, Hawaii

    Laportea aestuans (L.) Chew appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Aug 1, 2005 Cheek, M. [11096], Cameroon K000338324
    Feb 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [10181], Cameroon K000198502
    Feb 1, 2003 Cheek, M. [10179], Cameroon K000198503
    Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [7854], Cameroon K000381624
    Jul 1, 1990 Agra, M.F. [1226], Brazil K000973183
    Jan 1, 1986 Balée, W.L. [815], Brazil K000973181
    Jan 1, 1984 Plowman, T. [8499], Brazil K000973180
    Jan 1, 1981 Mori, S.A. [10979], Brazil K000973179
    Jan 1, 1979 Monteiro, O.P. [P22006], Brazil K000973182
    Sep 1, 1964 Burchell [1467], Brazil K000973162
    Sep 1, 1964 Ridley [114], Brazil K000973164
    Burchell [9106], Brazil K000973168
    Meurillon, A. [935], Cameroon K000181324
    Tweedie [1287], Brazil K000973173
    Tweedie [s.n.], Brazil K000973176
    Tweedie [1287], Brazil K000973177
    Schimper [1739], Ethiopia K000242849
    Schimper [1726], Ethiopia K000242850
    Martius [84], Brazil K000575401 isotype
    Martius [84], Brazil K000575402 isotype
    Spruce, R. [1507], Brazil K000973160
    Etuge, M. [266], Cameroon K000181327
    Irwin, H.S. [48485], Brazil K000973166
    Salzmann [s.n.], Brazil K000973178
    Preston, T.A. [1872], Brazil K000973165
    Ridley [116], Brazil K000973159
    Baker, C.F. [31], Brazil K000973167
    Ehrenberg [43], Ethiopia K000242848
    Appun, C.F. [621] K000973161
    Falcão, J.I. [834], Brazil K000973171
    Jonsson, G. [80/a], Brazil K000973172
    Glaziou [8085], Brazil K000973175
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000973170
    s.coll. [s.n.], Brazil K000973174
    Gardner [s.n.], Brazil K000973169
    Nditapah, J.K. [231], Cameroon K000181325
    Spruce [1507], Brazil K000973163

    First published in Gard. Bull. Singapore 21: 200 (1965)

    Accepted by

    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Pederneiras, L.C. & al. (2014). Avaliação do risco de extinção das Urticineae das restingas do estado de Rio de Janeiro Rodriguésia 65: 261-273.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Cardoso Pedemeiras, L., Ferreira da Costa, A., Dunn de Araujo,D.S. & Pereira Carauta, P.P. (2011). Ulmaceae, Cannabaceae e Urticaceae das restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodriguésia 62: 299-313.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Porter, D.M., Murrell, G. & Parker, J. (2009). Some new Darwin vascular plant specimens from the Beagle voyage Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 159: 12-18.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Friis, I. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Urticaceae: 1-64.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2015). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica. Volumen VIII. Dicotyledóneas (Sabiaceae-Zygophyllaceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 131: 1-657. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Frohlich, D. & Lau, A. (2014). New plant records for the Hawaiian islands 2012-2013 Bishop Museum Occasional Papers 115: 7-17.
    • Pederneiras, L.C. & al. (2014). Avaliação do risco de extinção das Urticineae das restingas do estado de Rio de Janeiro Rodriguésia 65: 261-273.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Kuo, M.L. (ed.) (2012). Flora of Taiwan, ed. 2, Suppl.: 1-414. Editorial Committee of the Flora of Taiwan, Second Edition, National Taiwan University.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Cardoso Pedemeiras, L., Ferreira da Costa, A., Dunn de Araujo,D.S. & Pereira Carauta, P.P. (2011). Ulmaceae, Cannabaceae e Urticaceae das restingas do estado do Rio de Janeiro Rodriguésia 62: 299-313.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania 30: 1-307.
    • Porter, D.M., Murrell, G. & Parker, J. (2009). Some new Darwin vascular plant specimens from the Beagle voyage Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 159: 12-18.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Balick, M. J., M. H. Nee & D.E. Atha (2000). Checklist of the vascular plants of Belize Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 85: 1-246.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Wood, J.R.I. (1997). A handbook of the Yemen Flora: 1-434. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Castle, G.E. (1994). Flore des Seychelles Dicotylédones: 1-663. Orstom Editions.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hansen, A. & Sunding, P. (1993). Flora of Macaronesia. Checklist of vascular plants. 4. revised edition Sommerfeltia 17: 1-295.
    • Launert, E. & Cope, G.V. (eds.) (1991). Flora Zambesiaca 9(6): 1-135. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Lebrun, J.p., Toutain, B., Gaston, A. & Boudet, G. (1991). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Burkina Faso: 1-341. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1989 publ. 1990). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 3: 1-659. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Friis, I. (1989). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Urticaceae: 1-64.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Guého, J. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1985). Flore des Mascareignes 161-169: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 1: 1-114. ORSTROM, Bangui.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Hutchinson, J., Dalziel, J.M. & Keay, R.W.J. (1954-1958). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 1-828.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Marais in Fl. Masc., 161, Urtic: 5 (1985).
    • Troupin, Fl. Rwanda 1:157 (1978).
    • Chew in Gard. Bull., Singapore 25: 164 (1969).
    • Letouzey in Fl. Cameroun 8:121 (1968).
    • Chew in Gard. Bull., Singapore 21: 200 (1965)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0