1. Family: Cactaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Opuntia Mill.
      1. Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is E. U.S.A., Mexico (Tamaulipas, San Luis Potosí).

    [FTEA]

    Cactaceae, R. Hunt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Erect or sprawling shrub up to 3–4 m. tall, sometimes with a definite cylindric trunk.
    Spines
    Joints usually narrowly obovate, flattened, 10–30 cm. long, 5–12 cm. broad, bright green; areoles densely and shortly woolly; glochids brownish; spines 1–2 per areole (–12 on trunk), stout acicular, up to 7 (–10) cm. long, 1.5 mm. in diameter, one generally conspicuously longer than the other when present, greyish, dark-tipped.
    Leaves
    Leaves subulate, 2–3 mm. long, early deciduous.
    Flowers
    Flowers 5–7.5 cm. in diameter; outer perianth-segments yellow, striped or shaded red, inner golden yellow, widely spreading.
    Fruits
    Fruit obovoid, 5–7.5 cm. long, 2–4 cm. in diameter, glochidiate, spineless, reddish-purple, with edible pulp.
    Figures
    Fig. 1, p. 4.
    Habitat
    Bushland, coastal bluffs, roadsides; often planted to make fences; 0–1650 m.
    Distribution
    K4 K6 K7 T1 T3 T6 Z native of South Americawidely introduced elsewhere, notably in South Africa and India where it was commonly used in the cochineal dye industry

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Kentucky, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Northeast, Mississippi, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Virginia, West Virginia

    Introduced into:

    Austria, Bulgaria, France, Free State, Great Britain, Greece, Italy, Korea, Kriti, Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland, Yugoslavia

    Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    K000100988
    K000100987
    Yugoslavia K000100470
    Europe K000100473
    73423.000
    Ball, J. [0], Yugoslavia K000100471
    Elafmann [0], Spain K000100472
    Glen [3779] K000100097
    Lucas, G. Ll. [268], Kenya Opuntia vulgaris 22960.000

    First published in Med. Fl. 2: 247 (1830)

    Accepted by

    • Vázquez Pardo, F.M. & García Alonso, D. (2017). Aproximación al conocimiento del grupo Opuntia Mill. (s.l.) (Cactaceae) en Extremadura (España) Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 11: 51-75.
    • Vladimirov, V., Aybeke, N. & Kit Tan (eds.) (2017). New floristic records in the Balkans: 32 Phytologia Balcanica 23: 119-146.
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Bailey, C. & al. (2015). Guide to the Vascular Plants of Tennessee: 1-813. University of Tennessee press.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2013). New floristic records in the Balkans: 21 Phytologia Balcanica 19: 131-157.
    • Tashev, A. (2012). Characteristics of the Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) locality in the Harmanli district, South Bulgaria Phytologia Balcanica 18: 11-16.
    • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F. & Kit Tan (2012). New floristic records in the Balkans: 19 Phytologia Balcanica 18: 205-230.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.

    Not accepted by

    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press. [Cited as Opuntia vulgaris.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Vázquez Pardo, F.M. & García Alonso, D. (2017). Aproximación al conocimiento del grupo Opuntia Mill. (s.l.) (Cactaceae) en Extremadura (España) Folia Botanica Extremadurensis 11: 51-75.
    • Retief, E. & Meyer, N.L. (2017). Plants of the Free State inventory and identification guide Strelitzia 38: 1-1236. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Tashev, A. (2012). Characteristics of the Opuntia humifusa (Cactaceae) locality in the Harmanli district, South Bulgaria Phytologia Balcanica 18: 11-16.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1968). Flora Europaea 2: 1-469. Cambridge University Press.

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/