1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Leersia Sw.
      1. Leersia hexandra Sw.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.

    [FZ]

    Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

    Habit
    A perennial with long stout branched rhizomes, more rarely caespitose.
    Culms
    Culms 40-85(-125) cm. tall, many-noded, simple or branched, erect or ascending from a geniculate base, often rooting at the lower nodes, sometimes floating, usually slender and weak but sometimes stout, striate, glabrous but densely and shortly hairy at the nodes.
    Leaf sheaths
    Leaf-sheaths finely striate, terete, the lowest often loose, the upper tight, usually shorter than the internodes, scaberulous or smooth, glabrous, auricled at the mouth.
    Ligules
    Ligule (0·9)1·5-2·5(-3·4) mm. long, usually asymmetric, obliquely truncate, sometimes lacerate.
    Leaf lamina
    Leaf-laminae 7·5-18(-30) x (0·2)0·3-0·8(-1·6) cm., narrowly linear, tapering to a fine point, expanded or involute, glaucous to bright green, somewhat rigid, rarely flaccid, straight or curved, usually glabrous, scaberulous but usually very scabrous at the margins towards the base.
    Inflorescences
    Racemes 1-5 on each branch, with the 3-10 spikelets usually densely imbricate. Panicle 5-10(-15) cm. long, narrow, contracted to open, erect or somewhat nodding, often partly enclosed by the uppermost leaf-sheath; rhachis furrowed, scabrous; branches suberect or rarely spreading, filiform, flexuous, angular, scaberulous or smooth.
    Pedicel
    Pedicels very short.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets (3·2)3·4-4·8 (5·9) x 1·2-1·4(-1·7) mm., obliquely oblong to oblong-elliptic in lateral view, yellowish-green, often tinged with purple.
    Lemma
    Lemma as long as the spikelet, obliquely semi-elliptic to oblong, cartilaginous to chartaceous, keel and margins with a row of usually stout cilia which are straight or slightly curved, flanks slightly hispid or rarely glabrous, apex usually produced into a short blunt tip.
    Palea
    Palea slightly shorter than the lemma but of the same consistency, with the keel ciliate, flanks hispid or rarely glabrous, apex usually subacute or rarely tapering to an acute point.
    Anthers
    Anthers 2-2·8(-3·2) mm. long, linear-oblong.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Perennial; culms 30 cm. to 1 m. high, slender, often decumbent, ascending from a creeping rhizome, silky pubescent at the nodes.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades mostly 10–20 cm. long and 4–8 mm. broad, flat, painfully retrorsely scabrid on the midrib beneath; ligule 1–2 mm. long, asymmetric, truncate or obliquely truncate.
    Inflorescences
    Panicle narrowly elliptic to oblong, 5–12 cm. long and 1–4 cm. wide; branches ascending, bearing spikelets almost to the base.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets oblong, (3.2–)3.4–4.8(–5.2) mm. long and (1–)1.2–1.4(–1.7) mm. broad, pale or purplish; lemma conspicuously pectinate-ciliate, or rarely spinulose, on the keel.
    Figures
    Fig. 9/11.
    Habitat
    In shallow water, often forming extensive matted carpets on flood plains and in swamps; up to 2000 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 throughout the tropics
    [GB]
    Habit
    Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 30-100 cm long. Culm-nodes pubescent. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades 10-20 cm long; 4-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; elliptic, or oblong; 5-12 cm long; 1-4 cm wide. Primary panicle branches bearing spikelets almost to the base. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; (3.2-)3.4-4.8(-5.2) mm long; (1-)1.2-1.4(-1.7) mm wide; falling entire.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; (3.2-)3.4-4.8(-5.2) mm long; (1-)1.2-1.4(-1.7) mm wide; falling entire.
    Glume
    Glumes both absent or obscure.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma (3.2-)3.4-4.8(-5.2) mm long; chartaceous; pallid, or purple; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma midvein pectinately ciliate. Lemma surface scabrous. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute. Palea elliptic; 1 length of lemma; chartaceous; 3 -veined; 1-keeled. Palea keels pectinate. Palea apex entire.
    Flowers
    Lodicules 2. Anthers 6. Stigmas 2.
    Distribution
    Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. North America: south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
    Reference
    Oryzeae. FTEA.
    [FWTA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

    Habit
    Culms ascending from a rhizomatous base, forming matted carpets 30–90 cm. high
    Ecology
    In shallow water
    Note
    The retrorsely spinulose midrib of the leaf can inflict most painful lacerations.

    Images

    Distribution

    Doubtfully present in:

    Canary Is.

    Native to:

    Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    California, Galápagos, Victoria

    Common Names

    English
    Rasp grass, Rice grass

    Leersia hexandra Sw. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Nov 1, 2013 Clayton, W.D. [4458], Brazil K001055042
    Nov 1, 2013 Swainson [s.n.], Brazil K001055029
    Nov 1, 2013 Kummrow, R. [367], Brazil K001055032
    Nov 1, 2013 Glaziou, A. [17902], Brazil K001055039
    Jan 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [9894], Cameroon K000339605
    May 1, 1998 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1252], Brazil K001055048
    Jan 1, 1967 Clayton, W.D. [4293], Brazil K001055033
    Jan 1, 1967 Clayton, W.D. [4431], Brazil K001055041
    Jan 1, 1967 Clayton, W.D. [4643], Brazil K001055043
    Jan 1, 1967 Clayton, W.D. [4565], Brazil K001055044
    Jan 1, 1967 Fróes, R.L. [20316], Brazil K001055047
    Jan 1, 1967 Tweedie, J. [s.n.], Argentina K001055038
    Jan 1, 1967 Spruce [836], Brazil K001055031
    Jan 1, 1967 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001055030
    Jan 1, 1964 Schimper [1823], Ethiopia K000345466
    Jan 1, 1964 Salzmann [s.n.] K000587423
    Jan 1, 1964 Salzmann [s.n.] K000587421
    Jan 1, 1964 Alexander [s.n.], South Africa K000345457 isotype
    Jan 1, 1964 Tanger [s.n.] K000587424
    Jan 1, 1964 Ehrenberg, C.G. [s.n.] K000587420
    Jan 1, 1964 Durieu de Maisonneuve, M.C. [s.n.], Algeria K000587419
    Jan 1, 1964 Durieu de Maisonneuve, M.C. [s.n.] K000587418
    Jan 1, 1964 Bouchet [s.n.] K000587425
    Jan 1, 1964 Kmoch [102], Burkina Faso K000392206
    Jan 1, 1964 Letourneux, A.-H. [151] K000587422
    Jan 1, 1964 Brunt, M.A. [532], Cameroon K000181842
    Jan 1, 1964 Brunt, M.A. [963], Cameroon K000181844
    Jan 1, 1964 Daramola, B. O. [FHI 41558], Cameroon K000181843
    Jan 1, 1964 Charter, J. R. [38006], Cameroon K000181845
    Jan 1, 1962 Pires, J.M. [4889], Brazil K001055045
    Dec 1, 1929 J.F.Duthie [9971], India K000032081 Unknown type material
    Dec 1, 1929 Rottler [s.n.], India K000032080 Unknown type material
    Dec 1, 1929 s.coll. [s.n.] K000587417 Unknown type material
    Kerr, A.F.G. [1537B], Thailand K000631597
    Kerr, A.F.G. [1537B], Thailand K000631598
    Kerr, A.F.G. [3827], Thailand K000631599
    Kerr, A.F.G. [11103], Thailand K000631600
    Sorensen, Th. [5777], Thailand K000682228
    Larsen, K. [768], Thailand K000682227
    Hansen, B. [11013], Thailand K000682229
    Griffith [6438], India K000032082 Unknown type material
    Hatschbach, G. [13714], Brazil K001055034
    Hatschbach, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001055036
    Hatschbach, G. [29584], Brazil K001055049
    Hatschbach, G. [29463], Brazil K001055050
    Hatschbach, G. [49276], Brazil K001055051
    Lindeman, J.C. [937], Brazil K001055035
    Bidgood, S. [5174], Tanzania K000190403
    Chantaranothai, P. [1192], Thailand K000682231
    Spruce, R. [6265], Ecuador K000201349
    Put [2585], Thailand K000631601
    Put [2585], Thailand K000631602
    Lazarides, M. [7493], Thailand K000682230
    Falconer [s.n.], India K000587429
    Brown, R. [s.n.], New South Wales K000587412
    Brown, R. [6170], Queensland K000587414
    Bunchuai, K. [926], Thailand K000682234
    Griffith, W. [s.n.], India K000032083 Unknown type material
    Griffith, W. [569], India K000587415
    Griffith, W. [569], Assam K001097586
    Laegaard, S. [18382], Burkina Faso K000392205
    Tweedie, J. [s.n.], Brazil K001055191
    Phengklai, C. [6137], Thailand K000682233
    Hamilton, W.D. [69], Brazil K001055046
    Dombrowski, L.T. [2241], Brazil K001055037
    Wight [s.n.], Assam K000587416
    Glaziou, A. [17902], Brazil K001055040
    Vicary, N. [s.n.], India K000587430
    Mueller, F.J.H.v. [s.n.], Australia K000587413
    Farrow, R.A. [67], Mali K000392203
    Naegele, A. [18], Burkina Faso K000392207

    First published in Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 21 (1788)

    Accepted by

    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
    • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
    • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
    • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
    • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
    • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
    • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 403.
    • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 134
    • Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 21 (1788)
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
    • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.
    • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
    • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
    • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
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    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/