Skip to main content
This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropics & Subtropics.
Leersia hexandra Sw.

[FZ]

Gramineae, E. Launert. Flora Zambesiaca 10:1. 1971

Morphology General Habit
A perennial with long stout branched rhizomes, more rarely caespitose.
Morphology Culms
Culms 40-85(-125) cm. tall, many-noded, simple or branched, erect or ascending from a geniculate base, often rooting at the lower nodes, sometimes floating, usually slender and weak but sometimes stout, striate, glabrous but densely and shortly hairy at the nodes.
Morphology Leaves Leaf sheaths
Leaf-sheaths finely striate, terete, the lowest often loose, the upper tight, usually shorter than the internodes, scaberulous or smooth, glabrous, auricled at the mouth.
Morphology Leaves Ligules
Ligule (0·9)1·5-2·5(-3·4) mm. long, usually asymmetric, obliquely truncate, sometimes lacerate.
Morphology Leaves Leaf lamina
Leaf-laminae 7·5-18(-30) x (0·2)0·3-0·8(-1·6) cm., narrowly linear, tapering to a fine point, expanded or involute, glaucous to bright green, somewhat rigid, rarely flaccid, straight or curved, usually glabrous, scaberulous but usually very scabrous at the margins towards the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Racemes 1-5 on each branch, with the 3-10 spikelets usually densely imbricate. Panicle 5-10(-15) cm. long, narrow, contracted to open, erect or somewhat nodding, often partly enclosed by the uppermost leaf-sheath; rhachis furrowed, scabrous; branches suberect or rarely spreading, filiform, flexuous, angular, scaberulous or smooth.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Pedicel
Pedicels very short.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets (3·2)3·4-4·8 (5·9) x 1·2-1·4(-1·7) mm., obliquely oblong to oblong-elliptic in lateral view, yellowish-green, often tinged with purple.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Lemma
Lemma as long as the spikelet, obliquely semi-elliptic to oblong, cartilaginous to chartaceous, keel and margins with a row of usually stout cilia which are straight or slightly curved, flanks slightly hispid or rarely glabrous, apex usually produced into a short blunt tip.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Palea
Palea slightly shorter than the lemma but of the same consistency, with the keel ciliate, flanks hispid or rarely glabrous, apex usually subacute or rarely tapering to an acute point.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens Anthers
Anthers 2-2·8(-3·2) mm. long, linear-oblong.

[FTEA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

Morphology General Habit
Perennial; culms 30 cm. to 1 m. high, slender, often decumbent, ascending from a creeping rhizome, silky pubescent at the nodes.
Morphology Leaves
Leaf-blades mostly 10–20 cm. long and 4–8 mm. broad, flat, painfully retrorsely scabrid on the midrib beneath; ligule 1–2 mm. long, asymmetric, truncate or obliquely truncate.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Panicle narrowly elliptic to oblong, 5–12 cm. long and 1–4 cm. wide; branches ascending, bearing spikelets almost to the base.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets oblong, (3.2–)3.4–4.8(–5.2) mm. long and (1–)1.2–1.4(–1.7) mm. broad, pale or purplish; lemma conspicuously pectinate-ciliate, or rarely spinulose, on the keel.
Figures
Fig. 9/11.
Habitat
In shallow water, often forming extensive matted carpets on flood plains and in swamps; up to 2000 m.
Distribution
K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 P T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 T8 throughout the tropics

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Nativa en Colombia; Alt. 0 - 3000 m.; Amazonia, Andes, Guayana y Serranía de La Macarena, Llanura del Caribe, Orinoquia, Pacífico, Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, Valle del Cauca, Valle del Magdalena.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba
Conservation
No Evaluada

[GB]
Morphology General Habit
Perennial. Rhizomes elongated. Culms geniculately ascending, or decumbent; 30-100 cm long. Culm-nodes pubescent. Ligule an eciliate membrane; 1-2 mm long; truncate. Leaf-blades 10-20 cm long; 4-8 mm wide. Leaf-blade surface scaberulous. Leaf-blade margins scabrous.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescence a panicle. Panicle open; elliptic, or oblong; 5-12 cm long; 1-4 cm wide. Primary panicle branches bearing spikelets almost to the base. Spikelets solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Spikelets
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; (3.2-)3.4-4.8(-5.2) mm long; (1-)1.2-1.4(-1.7) mm wide; falling entire.
Fertile
Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets oblong; laterally compressed; compressed strongly; (3.2-)3.4-4.8(-5.2) mm long; (1-)1.2-1.4(-1.7) mm wide; falling entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences Bracts Glume
Glumes both absent or obscure.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Florets
Fertile lemma (3.2-)3.4-4.8(-5.2) mm long; chartaceous; pallid, or purple; keeled; 5 -veined. Lemma midvein pectinately ciliate. Lemma surface scabrous. Lemma margins involute. Lemma apex acute. Palea elliptic; 1 length of lemma; chartaceous; 3 -veined; 1-keeled. Palea keels pectinate. Palea apex entire.
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Lodicules 2. Anthers 6. Stigmas 2.
Distribution
Africa: north, Macaronesia, west tropical, west-central tropical, northeast tropical, east tropical, southern tropical, south, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: western Asia, China, and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, Malesia, and Papuasia. Australasia: Australia. North America: south-central USA, southeast USA, and Mexico. South America: Mesoamericana, Caribbean, northern South America, western South America, Brazil, and southern South America.
Reference
Oryzeae. FTEA.

[FWTA]

Gramineae, W. D. Clayton. Flora of West Tropical Africa 3:2. 1972

Morphology General Habit
Culms ascending from a rhizomatous base, forming matted carpets 30–90 cm. high
Ecology
In shallow water
Note
The retrorsely spinulose midrib of the leaf can inflict most painful lacerations.

Doubtfully present in:

Canary Is.

Native to:

Alabama, Algeria, Andaman Is., Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arkansas, Assam, Bangladesh, Belize, Benin, Bolivia, Borneo, Botswana, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Brazil West-Central, Burkina, Burundi, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Congo, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Gambia, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Guyana, Hainan, Haiti, Honduras, India, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lebanon-Syria, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Libya, Louisiana, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maryland, Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Mississippi, Morocco, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicaragua, Nicobar Is., Niger, Nigeria, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Palestine, Panamá, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rwanda, Senegal, Sierra Leone, South Carolina, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Suriname, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Togo, Trinidad-Tobago, Tunisia, Uganda, Uruguay, Venezuela, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

Introduced into:

California, Galápagos, Victoria

English
Rasp grass, Rice grass

Leersia hexandra Sw. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Nov 1, 2013 Glaziou, A. [17902], Brazil K001055039
Nov 1, 2013 Kummrow, R. [367], Brazil K001055032
Nov 1, 2013 Clayton, W.D. [4458], Brazil K001055042
Nov 1, 2013 Swainson [s.n.], Brazil K001055029
Jan 1, 2000 Cheek, M. [9894], Cameroon K000339605
May 1, 1998 Nascimento, M.S.B. [1252], Brazil K001055048
Apr 19, 1991 von Sneidern, K. [2099], Colombia K001471726
Jan 1, 1967 Clayton, W.D. [4643], Brazil K001055043
Jan 1, 1967 Spruce [836], Brazil K001055031
Jan 1, 1967 Clayton, W.D. [4431], Brazil K001055041
Jan 1, 1967 Clayton, W.D. [4293], Brazil K001055033
Jan 1, 1967 Tweedie, J. [s.n.], Argentina K001055038
Jan 1, 1967 Spruce, R. [s.n.], Brazil K001055030
Jan 1, 1967 Clayton, W.D. [4565], Brazil K001055044
Jan 1, 1967 Fróes, R.L. [20316], Brazil K001055047
Jan 1, 1964 Alexander [s.n.], South Africa K000345457 isotype
Jan 1, 1964 Schimper [1823], Ethiopia K000345466
Jan 1, 1964 Kmoch [102], Burkina Faso K000392206
Jan 1, 1964 Durieu de Maisonneuve, M.C. [s.n.] K000587418
Jan 1, 1964 Brunt, M.A. [532], Cameroon K000181842
Jan 1, 1964 Ehrenberg, C.G. [s.n.] K000587420
Jan 1, 1964 Charter, J. R. [38006], Cameroon K000181845
Jan 1, 1964 Bouchet [s.n.] K000587425
Jan 1, 1964 Letourneux, A.-H. [151] K000587422
Jan 1, 1964 Salzmann [s.n.] K000587423
Jan 1, 1964 Durieu de Maisonneuve, M.C. [s.n.], Algeria K000587419
Jan 1, 1964 Tanger [s.n.] K000587424
Jan 1, 1964 Brunt, M.A. [963], Cameroon K000181844
Jan 1, 1964 Salzmann [s.n.] K000587421
Jan 1, 1964 Daramola, B. O. [FHI 41558], Cameroon K000181843
Jan 1, 1962 Pires, J.M. [4889], Brazil K001055045
Dec 1, 1929 Rottler [s.n.], India K000032080 Unknown type material
Dec 1, 1929 J.F.Duthie [9971], India K000032081 Unknown type material
Dec 1, 1929 s.coll. [s.n.] K000587417 Unknown type material
Harley, R.M. [16502], Bahia K000001129
Harley, R.M. [17442], Bahia K000001130
Gardner [0], Pernambuco K000001131
Gardner [1176], Pernambuco K000001128
Griffith [6438], India K000032082 Unknown type material
Griffith, W. [s.n.], India K000032083 Unknown type material
Bidgood, S. [5174], Tanzania K000190403
Spruce, R. [6265], Ecuador K000201349
Kerr, A.F.G. [3827], Thailand K000631599
Lazarides, M. [7493], Thailand K000682230
Dombrowski, L.T. [2241], Brazil K001055037
Bunchuai, K. [926], Thailand K000682234
Griffith, W. [569], India K000587415
Hatschbach, G. [13714], Brazil K001055034
Put [2585], Thailand K000631601
Falconer [s.n.], India K000587429
Lindeman, J.C. [937], Brazil K001055035
Brown, R. [6170], Queensland K000587414
Vicary, N. [s.n.], India K000587430
Laegaard, S. [18382], Burkina Faso K000392205
Brown, R. [s.n.], New South Wales K000587412
Phengklai, C. [6137], Thailand K000682233
Put [2585], Thailand K000631602
Griffith, W. [569], Assam K001097586
Glaziou, A. [17902], Brazil K001055040
Mueller, F.J.H.v. [s.n.], Australia K000587413
Hatschbach, G. [s.n.], Brazil K001055036
Chantaranothai, P. [1192], Thailand K000682231
Kerr, A.F.G. [1537B], Thailand K000631598
Larsen, K. [768], Thailand K000682227
Hatschbach, G. [49276], Brazil K001055051
Farrow, R.A. [67], Mali K000392203
Hamilton, W.D. [69], Brazil K001055046
Hatschbach, G. [29463], Brazil K001055050
Hansen, B. [11013], Thailand K000682229
Tweedie, J. [s.n.], Brazil K001055191
Kerr, A.F.G. [1537B], Thailand K000631597
Wight [s.n.], Assam K000587416
Naegele, A. [18], Burkina Faso K000392207
Sorensen, Th. [5777], Thailand K000682228
Hatschbach, G. [29584], Brazil K001055049
Kerr, A.F.G. [11103], Thailand K000631600
Ecuador K001471713
Ecuador K001471714
Ecuador K001471715
Ecuador K001471716
Ecuador K001471717
Ecuador K001471718
Ecuador K001471719
Panama K001471720
Colombia K001471721
Colombia K001471722
Colombia K001471723
Colombia K001471724
Colombia K001471725
Colombia K001471727
Venezuela K001471728
Venezuela K001471729
Venezuela K001471730
Galapagos Islands K001471731

First published in Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 21 (1788)

Accepted by

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Aedo, C., Tellería, M.T. & Velayos, M. (eds.) (1999). Bases Documentales para la Flora de Guinea Ecuatorial; Plantas vascularis y hongos: 1-414. CSIC, real jardín Botánico, Madrid.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
  • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Exell, A.W. (1973). Angiosperms of the islands of the gulf of Guinea (Fernando Po, Príncipe, S.Tomé, and Annobon) Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History). Botany 4: 325-411.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Henty, E.E. (1969). A manual of the grasses of New Guinea: 1-215. Division of Botany, Dpt. of Forests, LAE, New Guinea.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Koyama, T. (1987). Grasses of Japan and its neighboring regions: an identification manual: 1-570. Kodansha, Tokyo, Japan.
  • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
  • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
  • Middleton, D.J. & al. (eds.) (2019). Flora of Singapore 7: 1-525. Singapore Botanic Gardens.
  • Ndabaneze, P. (1989). Catalogue des Graminées du Burundi Lejeunia; Revue de Botanique, n.s., 132: 1-127.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Literature

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Flora of West Tropical Africa

  • A. Chev. in Rev. Bot. Appliq. 14: 134
  • Berhaut, Fl. Sén. ed. 2, 403.
  • Prod. Veg. Ind. Occ. 21 (1788)

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
  • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
  • Boggan, J. Funck, V. & Kelloff, C. (1997). Checklist of the Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, Franch Guiana) ed. 2: 1-238. University of Guyana, Georgetown.
  • Bosser, J. (1969). Gramiées des pasturages et des cultures a Madagascar: 1-440. ORSTOM, Paris.
  • Boudet, G., Lebrun, J.P. & Demange, R. (1986). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Mali: 1-465. Etudes d'Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux.
  • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
  • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286.
  • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
  • Clayton, W.D. (1970). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 1: 1-176.
  • Danin, A. (2004). Distribution Atlas of Plants in the Flora Palaestina area: 1-517. The Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities, Jerusalem.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Davidse, G. & al. (eds.) (1994). Flora Mesoamericana 6: 1-543. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México, D.F.
  • Dobignard, D. & Chatelain, C. (2010). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 1: 1-455. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Dávila, P., Mejia-Saulés, M.T., Gómez-Sánchez, N., Valdés-Reyna, J., Ortíz, J.J., Morín, C., Castrejón, J. & Ocampo, A. (2006). Catálogo de las Gramíneas de México: 1-671. CONABIO, México city.
  • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2007). Flora of North America North of Mexico 24: 1-908. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Forzza, R.C. & al. (2013). Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2010/.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa: an annotated checklist. Strelitzia 14.: i-vi, 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
  • Giraldo-Cañas, D. (2011). Catálogo de la familia Poaceae en Colombia Darwiniana 49: 139-247.
  • Hedberg, I. & Edwards, S. (eds.) (1995). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 7: 1-430. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
  • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
  • Hubbard, C.E. & Vaughan, R.E. (1940). Grasses of Mauritius and Rodriguez: 1-128. Crown Agents for the Colonies, London.
  • Jaramillo Díaz, P. & Guézou, A. (2017). CDF Checklist of Galapagos Vascular Plants - FCD Lista de especies de Plantas Vasculares de Galápagos http://www.darwinfoundation.org/datazone/checklists/vascular-plants/.
  • Jongkind, C. (2014). Fauna & Flora of Liberia, flowering plant species list www.liberianfaunaflora.org.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181.
  • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
  • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
  • Launert, E. (1971). Flora Zambesiaca 10(1): 1-152. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Lebrun, J.P. (1973). Énumération des plantes vasculaires du Sénégal: 1-209. Maisons Alfort: Institut d'élevage et de médecine vétérinaire des pays tropicaux.
  • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
  • Masamune, G. (1942). Enumeratio phanerogamarum Bornearum: 1-739. Taihoku, Formosa.
  • Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
  • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
  • Peyre de Fabregues, B. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1976). Catalogue des Plantes Vascularies du Niger: 1-433. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
  • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
  • Renvoize, S.A. (1998). Gramineas de Bolivia: 1-644. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Sarmah, K.K. & Borthakur, S.K. (2009). A checklist of angiospermic plants of Manas national park in Assam, India Pleione 3: 190-200.
  • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
  • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
  • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1988). Flora du Rwanda 4: I-X, 1-651. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
  • Walker, E.H. (1976). Flora of Okinawa and the southern Ryukyu islands: 1-1159. Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C., U.S.A.
  • Wilson, A. (ed.) (2009). Flora of Australia 44A: 1-410. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348.
  • de Moura Júnior, E.G. & al. (2015). Updated checklist of aquatic macrophytes from Northern Brazil Acta Amazonica 45: 111-132.

Flora of Tropical East Africa

  • A.V. Bogdan, A Revised List of Kenya Grasses p. 35 (1958).
  • D.M. Napper, Grasses of Tanganyika: 50 (1965).
  • Edwards & Bogdan, Imp. grassl. pl. Kenya: 47 (1951).
  • Eggeling, Ann. list grasses Ug.: 26 (1947).
  • F. W. Andr., The Flowering Plants of the Sudan 3: 479 (1956).
  • Hubbard, E. A. Pasture Plants 1: 46 (1926).
  • Jackson & Wiehe, Ann. list Nyasaland grasses: 46 (1958).
  • K.W. Harker & D.M. Napper, An Illustrated Guide to the Grasses of Uganda p. 39 (1960).
  • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 3: 205 (1955).
  • Sw., Prodr. Veg. Ind. Occ.: 21 (1788).
  • Troupin, Fl. Garamba 1: 51 (1956).

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora Zambesiaca
Flora Zambesiaca
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of Tropical East Africa
Flora of Tropical East Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Flora of West Tropical Africa
Flora of West Tropical Africa
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Plants and People Africa
Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
© Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/