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This species is accepted, and its native range is Macaronesia, Medit. to Iran and NE. Tropical Africa.
Campanula erinus

[FIQ]

Ghazanfar, S. A. & Edmondson, J. R (Eds). (2014) Flora of Iraq, Volume 5 Part 2: Lythraceae to Campanulaceae.

Morphology General Habit
Annual herb, hirsute all over, 3–20 cm high
Morphology Stem
Stems single or dichotomous, slender
Morphology Leaves
Leaves sessile or rarely shortly petiolate, ovate to elliptic, 3–15 × 2–6 mm, margin shallowly serrate to deeply lobed
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers
Flowers 1–2, small, sessile
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Calyx
Calyx exappendiculate; calyx lobes triangular lanceolate, longer than the tube, 2–5 × 1.5–2 mm; calyx tube broadly obconical-Corolla longer than calyx-lobes, blue or purple to white or yellow, usually slightly hairy along margins of lobes
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Androecium Stamens
Stamens nearly glabrous; anthers linear-oblong
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Ovary
Ovary small, 3-locular
Morphology Reproductive morphology Flowers Gynoecium Style
Style hairy, short, ± 3 mm long; stigma 3-fid
Morphology Reproductive morphology Fruits
Capsule 3-locular, turbinate, nodding
Morphology Reproductive morphology Seeds
Seeds light brown, elliptic, glossy, 0.6 × 0.2 mm.
Ecology
Crevices in limestone rocks in mountains; among rocks at the foot of riverside cliffs; on dry, steppic gypseous hills; alt. (150–)200–1300 m
Phenology
Flowering and fruiting: (Mar.–)Apr.–May.
Distribution
Occasional in the lower forest zone and steppe region of Iraq. Mediterranean Europe (Spain to Greece), Aegean Isles, Cyprus, Syria, Lebanon, Palestine, Jordan, Mediterranean Egypt, Arabia, Turkey, Caucasus, W, C & S Iran, N Africa.

[FIQ]
Use
Forked Bellflower. Though rather a weedy plant this species is sometimes cultivated for its reddish-violet to white flowers, particularly in S Europe. Chittenden (1951) mentions it as a weedy but hardy garden annual; but both Clifford Crook (1951) and Bailey (1953) consider it hardly worthy of space in the garden.

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Azores, Baleares, Canary Is., Corse, Cyprus, Djibouti, East Aegean Is., Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, France, Greece, Gulf States, Iran, Iraq, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Madeira, Morocco, Oman, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Sudan, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Campanula erinus L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Davis, P.H. [s.n.], Lebanon K000318449
Hepper, F.N. [12064], Lebanon K000318450

First published in Sp. Pl.: 169 (1753)

Accepted by

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Bergmeier, E., Blockeel, T., Böhling, N., Fournaraki, C., Gotsiou, P., Jahn, R., Lansdown, R. & Turland, N. (2011). An inventory of the vascular plants and bryophytes of Gavdopoula island (S Aegean, Greece) and its phytogeographical significance Willdenowia 41: 179-190.
  • Bernini, A., Marconi, G. & Polani, F. (2002). Campanule d'Italia e dei territori limitrofi: 1-185. Univ. di Trieste, Italy.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.

Literature

Flora of Iraq

  • Blakelock in Kew Bull. 4: 517 (1949);
  • Boiss., Fl. Orient. 3: 932 (1875);
  • Bornmuller in Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 61B: 74 (1941);
  • Boulos, Fl. Egypt 3: 131 (2002);
  • Damboldt in Fl. Turk. 6: 52 (1978);
  • Fedorov in Fl. Europaea 4: 88 (1976);
  • Fedorov in Fl. URSS 24: 189 (1957);
  • Ghazanfar, Fl. Oman 3: 178 (2015).
  • Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. ed. 1: 169 (1753);
  • Nabělek in Publ. Fac. Sci. Univ. Masaryk 70: 7 (1926);
  • Rawi in Dep. Agr. Iraq Tech. Bull. 14: 128 (1964);
  • Rech. f. & Schiman-Czeika in Fl. Iranica 13: 14 (1965);
  • Zohary in Dep. Agr. Iraq Bull. 31: 143 (1950);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palaest. 3: 281 (1978);
  • Zohary, Fl. Palest. ed. 2, 2: 167 (1932);

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • Audru, J., Cesar, J. & Lebrun, J.-P. (1994). Les Plantes Vasculaires de la République de Djibouti. Flore Illustrée 1: 1-336. CIRAD, Départerment d'Elevage et de Médecine vétérinaire, Djibouti.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Hedberg, I., Kelbessa, E., Edwards, S., Demissew, S. & Persson, E. (eds.) (2006). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 5: 1-690. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.

Flora of Iraq
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Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
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Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/