1. Family: Hypoxidaceae R.Br.
    1. Hypoxis L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical to N. America.

    [FZ]

    Hypoxidaceae, I. Nordal & C. Zimudzi. Flora Zambesiaca 12:3. 2001

    Habit
    Herbaceous geophytes; perennating organ a vertical rhizome surmounted by a ± dense coat of fibrous leaf remnants and ringed by stout contractile roots usually arranged in an equatorial zone on the rhizome.
    Leaves
    Leaves basal, sessile, linear to lanceolate, V-shaped in cross-section (conduplicate) or flat to ± terete, sometimes pseudopetiolate, sheathing at the base, pubescent along the abaxial midrib and margins, and often also on the lamina, sometimes forming a pseudostem (from the leaf sheaths and cataphylls), outermost leaves often reduced to cataphylls, new leaves produced successively from within older leaf bases the latter disintegrating into fibrous remnants; indumentum of 2-armed or 3–12-armed (stellate) hairs, white to brownish.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences usually produced continuously throughout the season; scapes simple or branched; flowers racemosely or corymbosely arranged, or flowers solitary; bracts hairy along the keel and margins.
    Perianth
    Perianth segments (tepals) free, acute to obtuse, persistent, yellow adaxially; outer tepals greenish and pubescent abaxially, inner tepals yellowish-green and pubescent only on the abaxial midrib.
    Stamens
    Stamens 6, uniseriate; filaments short; anthers latrorse, thecae fused or free at the apex.
    Ovary
    Ovary 3-locular; fruit a capsule with circumscissile or loculicidal dehiscence.
    Seeds
    Seeds with a distinct raphe, hilum and prominent micropyle; testa shiny black or dull brownish, smooth or variously papillose; the cuticle of the papillae smooth, or with 3–4 wing-like striae radiating from the papilla apex and often with fine irregular reticulate striae between.
    [FTEA]

    Hypoxidaceae, J. Wiland-Szymańska, I. Nordal. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 2006

    Corms
    Corms most often surmounted by a ± dense coat of fibrous leaf remnants and ringed by stout contractile roots usually arranged in an equatorial zone
    Leaves
    Leaves basal, sessile, linear to lanceolate, V-shaped in cross-section (conduplicate) or flat to ± terete, (sometimes pseudopetiolate - not in our area), sheathing at the base, pubescent along the abaxial midrib and margins, and often also on the lamina, sometimes forming a pseudostem (from the leaf sheaths and cataphylls), outermost leaves often reduced to cataphylls, new leaves produced successively from within older leaf bases; indumentum of white, yellowish to brownish 2-armed (bifurcate) or 3–12-armed (tufted) hairs
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences produced continuously throughout the season, or only at its beginning, on flattened scapes covered with tufted hairs, particularly in upper parts and on the rhachis
    Flowers
    Flowers, always supported by small hairy bracts, most often arranged in spicate to corymbose inflorescences, rarely only solitary; perianth segments (tepals) free, acute to obtuse, persistent, yellow adaxially (inside); outer tepals greenish and pubescent abaxially, inner tepals yellowish-green and pubescent only on the abaxial (outside) midrib; stamens equal in length or in the inner whorl shorter than in the outer, with short filaments; anthers latrorse, saggitate at the base, thecae fused or free at the apex
    Fruits
    Fruit a capsule with circumscissile (across carpels) or loculicidal (parallel to carpels) dehiscence
    Seeds
    Seeds with a distinct micropyle; testa shiny black or dull brownish, smooth or variously papillose; the cuticle of the papillae smooth, or with foldings, most often as wing-like striae radiating from the papilla apex with fine irregular reticulate striae between.
    Figures
    Fig 4, 1–9
    Note
    The genus includes a few diploid species with normal sexual reproduction (as H. angustifolia and H. filiformis) and several highly polyploid species that reproduce apomictically (asexual seed set, genetically equivalent to cloning). Plants with apomixis always create taxonomical problems, as the variation patterns are difficult to compare with those of sexual species, and species delimitation becomes complicated. Different morphological forms often occur in the same „population” as there is no gene exchange. Some authors have been splitters – and probably largely described clones (e.g. Nel 1914)–others have been lumpers (e.g. Nordal et al. 1985). Here we have tried to compromise. Generally, more field observations (particularly on underground organs) and microscopic observations (particularly on indumentum and seed surfaces) are needed. Adding to the difficulty in identifying taxa is the fact that the plants continue to produce new inflorescences while the leaves develop, thus completely altering the appearance through the season. Also the indumentum density changes through the season: in the same plant young leaves may appear densely pubescent, and old leaves may appear almost glabrous. When we refer to leaves in the key, this does not apply to the outer cataphylls, which might differ in indumentum and certainly in shape, but to well developed inner leaves in the rosette.
    Distribution
    Range: A genus of about 50 species, widespread in grassland and wooded grassland in Africa, America, Asia and Australia. Most of them appear to be fire tolerant, some even needing fire to flower.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Arizona, Arkansas, Assam, Bahamas, Bangladesh, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Brazil Northeast, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, Burundi, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Central African Repu, Chad, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Colorado, Congo, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Delaware, District of Columbia, Dominican Republic, East Himalaya, Ecuador, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Florida, Free State, French Guiana, Gabon, Galápagos, Georgia, Ghana, Guatemala, Guinea, Haiti, Honduras, Illinois, India, Indiana, Iowa, Jamaica, Japan, Jawa, Kansas, Kentucky, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Lesotho, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Louisiana, Madagascar, Maine, Malawi, Malaya, Manitoba, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mauritius, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Mozambique, Myanmar, Namibia, Nansei-shoto, Nebraska, Nepal, New Guinea, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New South Wales, New York, Nicaragua, Nigeria, North Carolina, North Dakota, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Ohio, Oklahoma, Ontario, Pakistan, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Philippines, Puerto Rico, Queensland, Rhode I., Rwanda, Réunion, Saskatchewan, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, South Australia, South Carolina, South Dakota, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Tanzania, Tasmania, Tennessee, Texas, Thailand, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Venezuela, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, West Himalaya, West Virginia, Western Australia, Windward Is., Wisconsin, Yemen, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Ascension

    Hypoxis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Milne-Redhead, E. [2934], Zambia 38334.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [2892], Zambia 38397.000
    Milne-Redhead, E. [3172], Zambia 38468.000
    Richards, H.M. [2038], Zambia 18236.000
    Cookson, A.J. [99439], Zimbabwe K000285892
    Sturgeon, K. [16970], Zimbabwe K000285894
    Hopkins, J.C. [17156], Zimbabwe K000285890
    Phipps, J.B. [1230], Zimbabwe K000285893
    Wild, H. [2089], Zimbabwe K000285891
    Richards, H.M. [16553], Malawi K000285888
    Gilliland, H.B. [1065], Zimbabwe K000285889

    First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 986 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R.H.A. (2011). World checklist of selected plant families published update Facilitated by the Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Nel in Engl., Bot, Jahrb. 51: 301 (1914).
    • F.T.A. 7: 377
    • Syst. ed. 10, 986 (1759)
    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Nordal in Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 3: 292 (1998).
    • Nordal et al. in Nordic J. Bot. 5: 15–30 (1985).
    • Geerinck in Bull. Jard. Bot. Belg. 39: 72–80 (1969).
    • Nel in Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 51: 259–286, 301–340 (1914).
    • in F.T.A. 7: 377–382 (1898).
    • in F.C. 6: 174–189 (1896)
    • J.G. Baker in J. Linn. Soc., Bot. 17: 98–119 (1878)
    • in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 986, 1366 (1759) pro parte typ. excl. H. fascicularis.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 88:301–350 (2001)
    • F.Z. 12 (3): 1–18 (2001)
    • Kubitzki, Fam. Gen. Vasc. Pl. 3: 292 (1998)
    • Fl. Eth. 6: 86 (1997)
    • Fl. Rwanda 4: 81–84 (1987)
    • Nordic J. Bot. 5: 15–30 (1985)
    • F.C.B.: 4–9 (1971)
    • B.J.B.B. 39: 72–80 (1969)
    • E.J. 51: 259–286, 301–340 (1914)
    • J.L.S. 17: 98–119 (1878)
    • Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 986 (1759)
    • F.T.A. 7: 377
    • Fl. Cameroun: 34–47

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0