1. Family: Buxaceae Dumort.
    1. Buxus L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Mexico, Caribbean, Europe, Temp. Asia to Philippines, Africa.

    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Habit
    Small, usually much branched trees and shrubs; glabrous throughout Small, usually much branched trees and shrubs; glabrous throughout.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, entire, coriaceous Leaves opposite, entire, coriaceous.
    Distribution
    A genus of c. 30 species, sometimes split into several genera or divided into a complex infrageneric classification (see discussion of the African taxa in Friis in Kew Bull. 44: 293–299 (1989)), widely distributed in tropical and South Africa and on Madag
    Flowers
    Female flowers with 4–6 perianth segments; staminodes absent; ovary 3-locular; styles 3, thick, grooved and with recurved stigmatic part; ovules 2 per locule. Female flowers with 4–6 perianth segments; staminodes absent; ovary 3-locular; styles 3, thick, grooved and with recurved stigmatic part; ovules 2 per locule Male flowers with 4 perianth segments, 2 outer and 2 inner ones, equal or unequal; stamens 4–6(10), usually opposite a perianth segment or more stamens at each perianth segment; anthers sessile, subsessile or on clearly distinguishable filaments, dorsifixed near the base, opening by longitudinal slits; rudimentary ovary truncate or 3-lobed at apex or absent Flowers in short compact spikes, often consisting of a terminal female flower subtended by bracts in the axils of which are 2–4 male flowers, or each inflorescence unisexual Male flowers with 4 perianth segments, 2 outer and 2 inner ones, equal or unequal; stamens 4–6(10), usually opposite a perianth segment or more stamens at each perianth segment; anthers sessile, subsessile or on clearly distinguishable filaments, dorsifixed near the base, opening by longitudinal slits; rudimentary ovary truncate or 3-lobed at apex or absent. Flowers in short compact spikes, often consisting of a terminal female flower subtended by bracts in the axils of which are 2–4 male flowers, or each inflorescence unisexual.
    Fruits
    Fruit capsular, dehiscing loculicidally, valves each with 2 apical, horn-like projections, representing remains of the styles; endocarp hard, separating from exocarp at maturity. Fruit capsular, dehiscing loculicidally, valves each with 2 apical, horn-like projections, representing remains of the styles; endocarp hard, separating from exocarp at maturity
    Seeds
    Seeds usually 3-ridged or ovoid-oblong, with black, shiny testa. Seeds usually 3-ridged or ovoid-oblong, with black, shiny testa.
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences or the lateral male flowers arise directly from the stem, not in the axils of bracts below the female flower, the androecium consists of 4 sessile or subsessile anthers, the rudimentary pistillode is usually, but not always absent, and the pollen is of the so-called B macowanii type The species of this group are associated with forest in southern Africa (B macowanii Oliv in the eastern Cape, B benguellensis Gilg in Angola and B nyasica Hutch in Malawi), and with evergreen scrub and more open vegetation in Madagascar (B madagascarica Baill.).
    [FTEA]

    Buxaceae, B. Verdcourt (East African Herbarium). Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1962

    Flowers
    Flowers subfasciculate or in short cymes, consisting of a solitary sessile or subsessile ♀ flower subtended by two bracts, surrounded by a few pedicellate, bracteate ♂ flowers ; or rarely the entire inflorescence composed of ♂ flowers Male flowers : sepals 4, obovate or orbicular, the outer narrower and subcucculate ; stamens usually 6, in two series, the outer series of 2, each opposite an outer sepal, the inner series of 4, each pair opposite an inner sepal ; anthers sessile ; rudimentary ovary absent Female flowers : sepals 4 ; styles 3, thick, grooved and recurved ; ovules 2 per loculus
    Male
    Male flowers : sepals 4, obovate or orbicular, the outer narrower and subcucculate ; stamens usually 6, in two series, the outer series of 2, each opposite an outer sepal, the inner series of 4, each pair opposite an inner sepal ; anthers sessile ; rudimentary ovary absent
    Female
    Female flowers : sepals 4 ; styles 3, thick, grooved and recurved ; ovules 2 per loculus
    Fruits
    Fruit capsular, dehiscing loculicidally ; valves each with 2 apical horn-like projections
    Seeds
    Seeds keeled.
    Habit
    Small trees or shrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite, entire, chartaceous or coriaceous
    [FZ]

    Flora Zambesiaca. Vol. 9, Part 3. Polygonaceae-Myriaceae. Pope GV, Polhill RM, Martins ES. 2006.

    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences with an apical female flower and a number of lower male pedicellate flowers, in these one or two extra stamens occur at the relatively broad inner pair of perianth segments, making a total of 5–6, the anthers are sessile or subsessile, a rudimentary pistillode is absent, and the pollen is of a type termed the Notobuxus type The species are closely related, and are as a group associated with lowland rain forest Buxus acutata Friis (Notobuxus acuminata (Gilg) Hutch.) in W Africa to Dem Rep Congo, B cordata (Radcl.-Sm.) Friis in Tanzania (Usambara Mts.), B obtusifolia (Mildbr.) Hutch in the coastal forests of Kenya and Tanzania, and B natalensis (Oliv.) Hutch in coastal forest of Natal.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Angola, Austria, Bahamas, Baleares, Belgium, Belize, Benin, Borneo, Cape Provinces, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Colombia, Comoros, Corse, Cuba, Djibouti, East Himalaya, El Salvador, Ethiopia, France, Gabon, Germany, Ghana, Great Britain, Greece, Guatemala, Hainan, Haiti, India, Iran, Italy, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Japan, Kenya, Korea, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Leeward Is., Libya, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mexican Pacific Is., Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Morocco, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, Northern Provinces, Panamá, Philippines, Portugal, Puerto Rico, Sardegna, Sierra Leone, Socotra, Somalia, Spain, Suriname, Switzerland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Tibet, Transcaucasus, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Turks-Caicos Is., Venezuela, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Windward Is., Yugoslavia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Azores, Ecuador, Madeira, New Zealand North, New Zealand South

    Buxus L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 7978], India K001128683
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 7978], India K001128684
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 7978], India K001128685

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 983 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Kew Bull. 44: 293–299 (1989).
    • Friis in Kew Bull. 44: 293–299 (1989).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 983 (1753).
    • Sp. Pl. 2: 983 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0