1. Family: Orchidaceae Juss.
    1. Schoenorchis Reinw. ex Blume

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Asia to SW. Pacific.

    [A-EM]
    Distribution

    Schoenorchis comprises 23 species collectively distributed from the Himalayan region, southern India, and Sri Lanka to southern China and the Philippines, Thailand, south to Indonesia and east to New Guinea, Australia, and the Pacific islands including Samoa.

    Ecology

    Species of Schoenorchis are epiphytes in gallery and wet evergreen forests, sometimes on ultramafic substrate, at 0–2500 m. Schoenorchis sarcophylla Schltr. grows on the outermost branches of Tristania exiliflora F.Muell. (Myrtaceae) overhanging rapidly flowing creeks in Queensland, Australia.

    General Description

    Epiphytic herbs. Stems up to 30 cm long, pendent or ascending, simple or sometimes branching, with several to many nodes. Leaves many, distichously arranged, glabrous, dorsiventrally flattened, semi-terete or terete, articulate to a sheathing base, deciduous, duplicate. Inflorescence lateral, racemose or paniculate, many-flowered. Flowers resupinate, usually not opening widely, usually white or red-purple. Sepals similar, free, often dorsally carinate. Petals free, smaller than sepals. Labellum rigidly adnate to base of column, about as long as petals or longer, trilobed, spurred at base, side lobes erect, midlobe slightly larger, often spatulate; spur usually parallel to ovary, lacking interior calli, sometimes with a longitudinal dividing wall inside near apex. Column without foot; pollinia four, arranged as two pairs, waxy, about equal, flat-globular or semi-globular, solid, attached by a common stipe to a narrowly elliptic to ovate viscidium; stigma at base of column; rostellum pointed, geniculate.

    Morphology

    Schill and Pfeiffer (1977) studied the pollen of S. juncifolia Reinw. ex Blume and S. micrantha Reinw. ex Blume (as Ascocentrum micranthum (Reinw. ex Blume) Holttum) and reported that the tetrads were convex with laevigate sculpturing (calymmate in S. micrantha like Ascocentrum species). The sexine was rounded and 0.8–2.0 μm thick.

    [A-EM]
    General Description

    Erect, epiphytic herbs. Stem simple or with an occasional short branch, leafy. Leaves distichous, coriaceous, obtusely unequally bilobed, articulate to a sheathing base; sheaths rugose, falcate. Inflorescence erect, racemose or paniculate, many-flowered; floral bracts minute, acuminate. Flowers about 4 mm long, resupinate, mostly greenish white streaked with brown, labellum greenish white or white, sometimes with violet around entrance to sac. Sepals and petals similar, free. Dorsal sepal connivent with petals to form a galea. Labellum sessile, base scrotiform, apex recurved, provided with a swelling, entrance almost closed, back wall callus absent. Column fleshy, obtuse, stelidia obscure, foot absent, clinandrium distinctly excavate, dorsally reclinate; anther cap mitre-shaped, pollinia four, free, globose, stipe linear, replicate, viscidium elliptic; stigma with a vertical margin, narrowly elliptic; rostellum vertical, pointing upward, prominently bifurcate.

    Ecology

    Both species are epiphytes at 900–1350 m in India.

    Distribution

    The two species of Xenikophyton—X. smeeanum and X. seidenfadenianum M.Kumar, Sequiera & J.J.Wood—are limited to southern India.

    [A-EM]
    Use

    No uses have been reported for Schoenorchis; it is sometimes cultivated.

    [A-EM]
    Use

    No uses have been reported for Xenikophyton; it is rare in cultivation.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, East Himalaya, Fiji, Hainan, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Myanmar, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Solomon Is., Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Thailand, Tibet, Vanuatu, Vietnam

    Schoenorchis Reinw. ex Blume appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Palawa Bot.Expdn. [MK247], Philippines 55134.000

    First published in Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind.: 361 (1825)

    Accepted by

    • Pridgeon, A.M., Cribb, P.J., Chase, M.C. & Rasmussen, F.N. (2014). Genera Orchidacearum 6: 1-544. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Monocotyledons Database in ACCESS: 1-71827. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Sources

    Aeridinae: e-monocot.org
    All Rights Reserved

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0