1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Excoecaria L.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & Subtropical Old World.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Dioecious or monoecious glabrous trees, shrubs or subshrubs.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or opposite, petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, crenulate or serrulate, penninerved, eglandular.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal or axillary, spicate or racemose, unisexual or bisexual with most of the inflorescence male with 1–5 female flowers at the base; bracts small, 2-glandular at the base, 1–∞-flowered.
    Flowers
    Male flowers small, ± sessile; sepals (2)3(4), ± free, imbricate; petals and disk absent; stamens 3 (African species), free, anthers extrorse, basifixed, 2-thecous, the thecae free at the base, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode absent. Female flowers small, shortly pedicellate; sepals ± as in the male flowers; petals and disk absent; ovary (2)3-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles (2)3, free or ± so, entire, strongly coiled.
    Fruits
    Fruit (2)3-lobed, dehiscing into bivalved cocci; valves readily separating; exocarp smooth; endocarp thinly crustaceous; columella persistent.
    Seeds
    Seeds globose or ovoid; testa crustaceous; caruncle separating from the seed and remaining adnate to the columella; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Dioecious or monoecious completely glabrous trees, shrubs or subshrubs
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate or opposite, petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, crenulate or serrulate, penninerved, eglandular at the base of the lamina
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, terminal or occasionally leaf-opposed, spicate or racemose, solitary or fascicled, unisexual or bisexual, if the latter then with most of the inflorescence ♂ with 1–5 ♀ flowers at the base; ♂ bracts 1–many-flowered, small, each biglandular at the base; bracteoles present or 0
    Male
    Male flowers small, sessile or subsessile; sepals (2–)3(–4), free or united at the base, imbricate; petals 0; disc 0; stamens (2–)3(–8), free, anthers extrorse, basifixed, 2-thecous, the thecae free at the base, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
    Flowers
    Female flowers small, shortly pedicellate; sepals (2–)3, free or united, imbricate; petals 0; disc 0; ovary (2–)3-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles (2–)3, free or slightly connate at the base, entire, strongly coiled Male flowers small, sessile or subsessile; sepals (2–)3(–4), free or united at the base, imbricate; petals 0; disc 0; stamens (2–)3(–8), free, anthers extrorse, basifixed, 2-thecous, the thecae free at the base, longitudinally dehiscent; pistillode 0
    Female
    Female flowers small, shortly pedicellate; sepals (2–)3, free or united, imbricate; petals 0; disc 0; ovary (2–)3-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles (2–)3, free or slightly connate at the base, entire, strongly coiled
    Fruits
    Fruit (2–)3-lobed, dehiscing into (2–)3 bivalved cocci, the valves of which then separate and coil up; exocarp smooth, not separating from the endocarp; endocarp thinly crustaceous; columella persistent, 3-winged at the apex
    Seeds
    Seeds globose or ovoid; caruncle (? swollen funicle) separating from the seed and remaining adnate to the columella; testa crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Assam, Bangladesh, Benin, Bismarck Archipelago, Borneo, Botswana, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Caprivi Strip, Caroline Is., Central African Repu, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Fiji, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Liberia, Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Mali, Maluku, Marianas, Mozambique, Myanmar, Nansei-shoto, Nepal, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Niue, Norfolk Is., Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Santa Cruz Is., Seychelles, Sierra Leone, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Tonga, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Western Australia, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Introduced into:

    Trinidad-Tobago

    Excoecaria L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Puradyatmika, P. [10412], New Guinea 70585.000

    First published in Syst. Nat. ed. 10, 2: 1288 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Syst. Nat., ed. 10: 1288 (1759).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in F.C.B. 8: 148 (1962)
    • J. Léon. in B.J.B.B. 29: 138 (1959)
    • Pax in E.P. IV. 147(5): 157 (1912)
    • G.P. 3(1): 337 (1880)
    • Muell. Arg. in DC., Prodr. 15(2): 1201 (1866), pro parte
    • Syst., ed. 10, 2: 1288 (1759)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0