1. Family: Caryophyllaceae Juss.
    1. Genus: Spergula L.
      1. Spergula arvensis L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Temp. Eurasia, Madaronesia, NW. Africa, Ethiopia to E. Central & E. Tropical Africa.

    [FZ]

    Caryophyllaceae, H. Wild. Flora Zambesiaca 1:2. 1961

    Habit
    Erect branching herb up to 60 cm. or more tall; branches cylindric, glabrous or sparsely glandular-pubescent above.
    Leaves
    Leaves 1–6·5 cm. × 0·5–0·75 mm., linear, rounded or subacute at the apex, channelled on the lower (abaxial) surface, sparsely glandular-pubescent or glabrescent.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences few- to many-flowered, branches glandular-pubescent; bracts c. 1 mm. long, ovate, scarious; pedicels up to 2·5 cm. long.
    Calyx
    Sepals greenish with a white membranous margin, c. 4 × 2 mm., elliptic, apex obtuse, usually glandular-pubescent outside.
    Corolla
    Petals white, slightly shorter than the sepals, obovate or ovate.
    Stamens
    Stamens 10, slightly less than half the length of the petals, those alternating with the petals slightly longer.
    Ovary
    Ovary ellipsoid, very shortly stipitate; ovules fairly numerous.
    Fruits
    Capsule ovoid or sub-globose, splitting about 2/3 of the way down into 5 valves, exserted for c. 2 mm. from the persistent perianth.
    Seeds
    Seeds 15–25, c. 0·85 mm. in diam., biconvex, encircled by a very narrow winged margin, from brown to black with paler club-shaped papillae.
    [FTEA]

    Caryophyllaceae, W. B. Turrill. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1956

    Habit
    Erect, branched, stems up to 6 dm. or more in height, glabrous below, often glandular-viscid in the upper and inflorescence parts.
    Leaves
    Leaves 1–6.5 cm. long, 0.5–0.75 mm. broad, rounded or subacute, channelled on abaxial surface.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences 9-many-flowered.
    Calyx
    Sepals elliptic, obtuse, 4 mm. long, with white membranous margins.
    Corolla
    Petals obovate, 3.75 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Capsule with 20–25 seeds.
    Seeds
    Seeds biconvex, approximately circular in flat outline, with a narrow but not winged margin, black, with small pale club-shaped papillae.
    Habitat
    Weed of cultivated and waste places, and dry river beds; 1600–2550 m.
    Distribution
    K3 K4 T3 now almost cosmopolitan, often as an introduced weed

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Azores, Baltic States, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Burundi, Canary Is., Central European Rus, Chita, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, East European Russia, Ethiopia, Finland, France, Føroyar, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Ireland, Irkutsk, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Krasnoyarsk, Kriti, Madeira, Morocco, Netherlands, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Rwanda, Sardegna, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Turkey-in-Europe, Ukraine, West Himalaya, West Siberia, Yakutskiya, Yugoslavia, Zaïre

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Alaska, Alberta, Amur, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Argentina South, Arkansas, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil North, Brazil South, Brazil Southeast, British Columbia, California, Cape Provinces, Chile Central, Chile South, Colombia, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, District of Columbia, Ecuador, Falkland Is., Florida, Georgia, Greenland, Guatemala, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Jamaica, Kamchatka, Kentucky, Khabarovsk, Kirgizstan, Korea, Kuril Is., KwaZulu-Natal, Lesotho, Louisiana, Magadan, Maine, Maryland, Masachusettes, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southwest, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, New Brunswick, New Caledonia, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Newfoundland, North Carolina, Northern Provinces, Northwest Territorie, Nova Scotia, Ohio, Ontario, Oregon, Panamá, Paraguay, Pennsylvania, Peru, Primorye, Prince Edward I., Québec, Rhode I., Réunion, Sakhalin, Saskatchewan, South Carolina, St.Helena, Texas, Uruguay, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming, Yukon, Zimbabwe

    Spergula arvensis L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Oct 31, 2011 Day, C.D. [131], Turkey K000341551

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 440 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Rzedowski, J. & G. Calderón de Rzedowski (eds.) (2013). Flora del Bajio y regiones adyacentes 180: 1-118. Xalapa, Veracruz : Instituto de Ecologia.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Ebel, A.L., Buko, T.E., Sheremetova, S.A., Yakovleva, G.I. & Kuprijanov, A.N. (2009). New species of vascular plants from Kemerovo region Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 94: 106-113.
    • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
    • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2005). Flora of North America North of Mexico 5: 1-656. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Asteraceae (Compositae) Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turrill, W.B. (1956). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Caryophyllaceae: 1-38.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
    • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
    • Mohlenbrock, R.H. (2014). Vascular Flora of Illinois. A Field Guide, ed. 4: 1-536. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale.
    • Jørgensen, P.M., Nee, M.H. & Beck., S.G. (eds.) (2013). Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127: 1-1741. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Rzedowski, J. & G. Calderón de Rzedowski (eds.) (2013). Flora del Bajio y regiones adyacentes 180: 1-118. Xalapa, Veracruz : Instituto de Ecologia.
    • López Patiño, E.J., Szeszko, D.R., Rascala Pérez, J. & Beltrán Retis, A.S. (2012). The flora of the Tenacingo-Malinalco-Zumpahuacán protected natural area, state of Mexico, Mexico Harvard Papers in Botany 17: 65-167.
    • Meena, S.L. (2012). A checklist of the vascular plants of Banaskantha district, Gujarat, India Nelumbo 54: 39-91.
    • Kumar, S. (2012). Herbaceous flora of Jaunsar-Bawar (Uttarkhand), India: enumerations Phytotaxonomy 12: 33-56.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Marhold, K. (ed.) (2012). IAPT/IOPB chromosome data 13 Taxon 61: 889-902.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Ebel, A.L., Buko, T.E., Sheremetova, S.A., Yakovleva, G.I. & Kuprijanov, A.N. (2009). New species of vascular plants from Kemerovo region Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 94: 106-113.
    • Mateos, M.A. & Valdés, B. (2009). Catálogo de la flora vascular del Rif occidental calizo (N de Marruecos). I Selaginellaceae - Rosaceae Lagascalia 29: 105-257.
    • Aistova, E. (2009). Check-list of adventive flora of Amur region Turczaninowia 12(1-2): 17-40.
    • GBIF (2008-continuously updated). Global Biodiversity Information Facility http://www.gbif.org/.
    • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Malyschev, L.I., Peshkova, G.A. & Baikov, K.S. (eds.) (2007). Flora of Siberia 14: 1-210. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2005). Flora of North America North of Mexico 5: 1-656. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Jones, R.L. (2005). Plant life of Kentucky. An illustrated guide to the vascular flora: 1-833. The universitry press of Kentucky.
    • Correa A., Mireya D. Galdames, Carmen Correa A., M. D., C. Galdames & M. S. de Stapf (2004). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares de Panamá: 1-599. Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute.
    • Malyschev, L.I. & Peschkova, G.A. (eds.) (2003). Flora of Siberia 6: 1-301. Scientific Publishers, Inc., Enfield, Plymouth.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Broughton, D.A. & McAdam, J.H. (2002). The non-native vascular flora of the Falkland islands Botanical Journal of Scotland 54: 153-190.
    • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Abdulina, S.A. (1999). Spisok Sosudistykn Rastenii Kazakhstana: 1-187. Academy of Sciences, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
    • Kharkevich, S.S. (ed.) (1992). Asteraceae (Compositae) Plantae Vasculares Orientalis Extremi Sovietici 6: 1-428. Nauka, Leningrad.
    • Brown, L.C. (1982). The Flora and Fauna of St Helena: 1-88. Land Resources Development Centre, Surbiton, England.
    • Bosser, J., Cadet, T., Julien, H.R. & Marais, W. (eds.) (1980). Flore des Mascareignes 31-50: 1. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Troupin, G. (ed.) (1978). Flora du Rwanda 1: 1-413. Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale.
    • Lewalle, J. (1970). Liste floristique et répartition altitudinale de la flore du Burundi occidental: 1-84. Université officielle de Bujumbura.
    • Exell, A.W. & Wild, H. (eds.) (1961). Flora Zambesiaca 1(2): 337-581. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Turrill, W.B. (1956). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Caryophyllaceae: 1-38.
    • Robyns, W. & al. (eds.) (1948-1963). Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi 1-10.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Balle, Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 138 (1951).
    • Oliv. in Flora of Tropical Africa 1: 143 (1868).
    • L., Sp. Pl. 440 (1753).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0