1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Suregada Roxb. ex Rottler

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Tropical & S. Africa, W. Indian Ocean, S. China, Taiwan, Tropical Asia.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Dioecious, sometimes monoecious, usually glabrous trees or shrubs.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, entire, denticulate or crenate-serrate, vesicular-punctate, penninerved.
    Stipules
    Stipules soon falling, leaving prominent scars.
    Flowers
    Female flowers pedicellate; sepals (4)5–6(8), free, imbricate, subequal, glandular or not; petals absent; disk annular, sometimes lobed; staminodes 5–10; ovary 2–4-celled, with 1 ovule per cell; styles 2–4, united at the base, bifid or multifid, short. Flowers fasciculate or glomerulate in leaf-opposed cymules, or subsolitary, somewhat gummy at first; bracts minute. Male flowers usually pedicellate; sepals (4)5–6(7), free, imbricate, unequal, glandular or not; petals absent; disk glands usually interstaminal, confluent; stamens 6–30 (African species), free, anthers dorsifixed, extrorse, longitudinally dehiscent at the back; pistillode absent.
    Fruits
    Fruit 2–4-lobed or subglobose, dehiscing into bivalved cocci, loculicidal or indehiscent; exocarp smooth or reticulate; endocarp woody, coriaceous or crustaceous; columella persistent.
    Seeds
    Seeds ecarunculate; exotesta pulpy; endotesta crustaceous; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Dioecious or sometimes monoecious trees or shrubs, usually glabrous but occasionally with a simple indumentum
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, shortly petiolate, stipulate, simple, usually entire, vesicular-punctate or -zonate, chartaceous or coriaceous, penninerved
    Stipules
    Stipules soon caducous, leaving prominent scars
    Flowers
    Flowers in leaf-opposed, glomerulate or fasciculate, sessile or pedunculate, uni- or bisexual cymules, ± gummy when young bracts; minute Female flowers pedicellate; sepals (4–)5(–8), free, imbricate, subequal, sometimes with a central glandular boss; petals 0; disc annular, sometimes lobate; staminodes 5–10, stamen-like or minute and subulate; ovary (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles (2–)3(–4), united at the base, divaricate, bifid or multifid, stigmas linear or subulate, not persistent Male flowers usually pedicellate; sepals (4–)5(–7), free, imbricate, unequal, the outer ones sometimes with a central glandular boss, the inner ones petaloid; petals 0; receptacular glands or an annular disc present, but never both; stamens (6–)10–25(–60), free, anthers medifixed, extrorse, 2-thecous, longitudinally dehiscent at the back, pistillode 0
    Male
    Male flowers usually pedicellate; sepals (4–)5(–7), free, imbricate, unequal, the outer ones sometimes with a central glandular boss, the inner ones petaloid; petals 0; receptacular glands or an annular disc present, but never both; stamens (6–)10–25(–60), free, anthers medifixed, extrorse, 2-thecous, longitudinally dehiscent at the back, pistillode 0
    Female
    Female flowers pedicellate; sepals (4–)5(–8), free, imbricate, subequal, sometimes with a central glandular boss; petals 0; disc annular, sometimes lobate; staminodes 5–10, stamen-like or minute and subulate; ovary (2–)3(–4)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles (2–)3(–4), united at the base, divaricate, bifid or multifid, stigmas linear or subulate, not persistent
    Fruits
    Fruit (1–)3(–4)-lobed or subglobose, dehiscing into as many bivalved cocci, or loculicidal, or else an indehiscent drupe; exocarp smooth or reticulate; endocarp subligneous, thinly crustaceous or firmly coriaceous; columella persistent
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid, with a thin pulpy sarcotesta and a crustaceous smooth or foveolate-reticulate endotesta, ecarunculate; albumen fleshy; cotyledons broad, flat.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Angola, Assam, Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Cape Provinces, China South-Central, China Southeast, Comoros, East Himalaya, Ethiopia, Ghana, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malawi, Malaya, Maluku, Mozambique, Myanmar, New Guinea, Nicobar Is., Nigeria, Northern Provinces, Northern Territory, Philippines, Réunion, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Swaziland, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Uganda, Vietnam, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Suregada Roxb. ex Rottler appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Neue Schriften Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin 4: 206 (1803)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • in Ges. Naturf. Freunde Berlin Neue Schriften 4: 206 (1803).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • in F.C.B. 8: 124 (1962)
    • J. Léon. in B.J.B.B. 28: 443 (1958)
    • in Ges. Nat. Fr. Berlin, Neue Schr., 4: 206 (1803)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0