1. Family: Casuarinaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Casuarina L.
      1. Casuarina equisetifolia L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is India to W. Pacific.

    [FTEA]

    Casuarinaceae, C.M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Tree 7–25 m. high, monoecious, often pyramidal and much branched; trunks stout (diameter 30 cm., girth up to 1.5 m.), sometimes several from same rootstock.
    Bark
    Bark dark grey or deep brownish, rough or smooth, lenticels usually visible or prominent on younger twigs on which are usually also present white remains of leaf-whorls splitting into longitudinal strips often with quite sharp recurved apices and peeling off with age to leave a ring of transverse scars and cracks at each node.
    Stem
    Youngest persistent stems with internodes usually 1.5–2.5 mm., rarely 8 mm. long, and whorls of (6–)7–8 scale-leaves, these straw-coloured and thickly chartaceous, extremely reflexed, free part 2–3 mm. long, 0.4 mm. wide, narrowly triangular with thick excurrent midrib, margin with numerous white or pale cilia often nearly 0.2 mm. long, similar hairs dense or sparse on adaxial surface especially midrib and more sparse on abaxial surface, midrib glabrous.
    Branches
    Lower branches stout, spreading, uppermost whippy and ± pendent. Deciduous branchlets arising in abundance from persistent stems especially towards apices, 0.5–0.7 mm. in diameter, bright green with 7–8 slightly paler prominent ribs; scale-leaves in whorls of (6–)7–8, small, adpressed, thinly chartaceous, pale green or straw-coloured, united at base into short tube up to 1 mm. long, free part (0.4–)0.5–0.7 mm. long, (0.2–)0.3 mm. wide, glabrous, margin with cilia similar to but shorter than those on persistent stem-leaves and continuing as a rather inconspicuous fringe of hairs along centre of grooves between stem-ribs.
    Inflorescences
    Male inflorescences abundant on deciduous branches (rare on persistent branches), 10–30(–40) mm. long, 1.2–2 mm. in diameter (excluding exserted anthers), tapering gradually into short sterile basal region; whorls of bracts 15–22; bracts usually 7 per whorl or less near base, ± adpressed, mucronate, straw-coloured and chartaceous, up to 1.1–1.8 mm. long, 0.4–0.5 mm. wide, glabrous inside, margin and outer surface with hairs as on scale-leaves; bracteoles membranous-scarious, ovate, 0.7–1 × 0.3 mm., apex acute and apical third of margin erose-dentate-ciliate. Perianth of 2 segments up to 0.7 mm. long, 0.4 mm. wide, membranous, rounded. Filaments exserted up to 1.5 mm. from bracts; anthers 0.8–1 mm. long, brownish, mostly maturing and exserted at same time. Female inflorescence axillary towards apices of younger persistent branches, scattered or densely clustered, often on same branches as ♂ and/or mature fruits; heads ± well-defined, ovoid or subglobose, 3–5 mm. long, stalk 3–10 mm.; bracts similar in shape, size, colour and pubescence to those of ♂. Stigmas exserted up to 3–4 mm., red.
    Male
    Male inflorescences abundant on deciduous branches (rare on persistent branches), 10–30(–40) mm. long, 1.2–2 mm. in diameter (excluding exserted anthers), tapering gradually into short sterile basal region; whorls of bracts 15–22; bracts usually 7 per whorl or less near base, ± adpressed, mucronate, straw-coloured and chartaceous, up to 1.1–1.8 mm. long, 0.4–0.5 mm. wide, glabrous inside, margin and outer surface with hairs as on scale-leaves; bracteoles membranous-scarious, ovate, 0.7–1 × 0.3 mm., apex acute and apical third of margin erose-dentate-ciliate. Perianth of 2 segments up to 0.7 mm. long, 0.4 mm. wide, membranous, rounded. Filaments exserted up to 1.5 mm. from bracts; anthers 0.8–1 mm. long, brownish, mostly maturing and exserted at same time.
    Female
    Female inflorescence axillary towards apices of younger persistent branches, scattered or densely clustered, often on same branches as ♂ and/or mature fruits; heads ± well-defined, ovoid or subglobose, 3–5 mm. long, stalk 3–10 mm.; bracts similar in shape, size, colour and pubescence to those of ♂. Stigmas exserted up to 3–4 mm., red.
    Infructescences
    Infructescences shortly cylindrical or subglobose with flattened apex, sparse, scattered or densely clustered, 8–17(–25) mm. long, 10–16 mm. in diameter; whorls of paired infructescence-valves (6–)8–9(–12), alternating; valves usually 7–8 per whorl, up to 1.5–3.2 mm. wide, but size and number usually less towards apex; valve-backs with 2 longitudinal ridges and densely red-brown pubescent especially at margins and towards tip, inner surfaces glabrous or pubescent at tip; valves not much thickened, ± obovate, apices acute often mucronate, projecting 1.5–3 mm. above rest of surface, valve-pairs separated from adjacent pairs by gap of 0.5–1 mm.; bracts between valves with free ± acute apex up to 1 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Samaras varying in size, 5–7 mm. long but those from smaller valves rather smaller; wing usually 3.5–4.5 mm. long, 2–3 mm. wide, whitish or pale brown translucent, longitudinal nerve excurrent into mucronate curved apex; seed-bearing basal part flattened-ovoid, 1.5–2.5 mm. long and wide, up to 1 mm. thick, pale straw-coloured or rarely light brown, glossy but surface not shiny since roughened by minute ± longitudinal patterning of wavy raised lines.
    Figures
    Figs. 1/3 and 2.
    Habitat
    Sandy areas above or even on seashore above high tide mark, coastal bushland; also widely planted in similar areas and up to 1500 m.
    Distribution
    east coast of tropical AfricaMadagascar, Malaysia, Australasia, Polynesiacultivated only: U 2T 5tropical Africa, Mascarene Is., Europe, India, Sri Lanka, N. and S. America K7 P T3 T6 T8 Z
    [FZ]

    Casuarinaceae, C. M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Habit
    Tree 7–25 m. tall, monoecious; sterns stout, up to c. 30 cm. diam. breast height, sometimes several, bark grey-brown.
    Branches
    Deciduous branchlets numerous, especially toward the apices of the persistent branches, (0.4)0.5–0.7 mm. in diam., 7–8-ribbed; scale leaves (6)7–8 per whorl, greenish or straw-coloured, free part c. 0.5–0.7 mm. long, appressed, thinly chartaceous, glabrous, margin ciliate. Youngest persistent branches with internodes usually 1.5–2.5 mm. long; scale leaves (6)7–8 per whorl, greenish or straw-coloured, united at base into a short tube c. 1 mm. long, free part 2–3 mm. long, much reflexed, thickly chartaceous, pubescent.
    Male
    Male inflorescences abundant on deciduous branchlets (rare on persistent branches), 10–30(40) x 1.2–2 mm. (width excluding exserted anthers), cylindrical, tapering gradually into a short sterile basal part; whorls of bracts 15–25; bracts c. 7 per whorl, fewer near the base, appressed, 1.1–1.8 x 0.4–0.5 mm., pubescent outside; bracteoles 0.7–1 x 0.3 mm., ovate, acute, erose-dentate-ciliate in upper one-third; perianth segments 2, up to 0.7 x 0.4 mm., rounded, membranous; filaments exserted by 1.5 mm.; anthers 0.8–1 mm. long, brownish.
    Inflorescences
    Female inflorescences axillary, toward the apices of younger persistent branches, scattered or densely clustered, often on same branches as male inflorescences; heads 3–5 mm. long, ovoid or subglobose; stalk 3–10 mm. long; bracts as for the male inflorescences; stigmas exserted by 3–4 mm., red. Male inflorescences abundant on deciduous branchlets (rare on persistent branches), 10–30(40) x 1.2–2 mm. (width excluding exserted anthers), cylindrical, tapering gradually into a short sterile basal part; whorls of bracts 15–25; bracts c. 7 per whorl, fewer near the base, appressed, 1.1–1.8 x 0.4–0.5 mm., pubescent outside; bracteoles 0.7–1 x 0.3 mm., ovate, acute, erose-dentate-ciliate in upper one-third; perianth segments 2, up to 0.7 x 0.4 mm., rounded, membranous; filaments exserted by 1.5 mm.; anthers 0.8–1 mm. long, brownish.
    Female
    Female inflorescences axillary, toward the apices of younger persistent branches, scattered or densely clustered, often on same branches as male inflorescences; heads 3–5 mm. long, ovoid or subglobose; stalk 3–10 mm. long; bracts as for the male inflorescences; stigmas exserted by 3–4 mm., red.
    Infructescences
    Infructescences 8–17(25) x 10–16 mm., shortly cylindrical or subglobose, ± flattened at the apex, (6)8–9(12) whorls of paired infructescence valves; valve pairs 7–8 per whorl, 1.5–3.2 mm. wide (but smaller and fewer towards apex), valves ± obovate, acute to mucronate, apices projecting by 1.5–3 mm., gap between adjacent pairs 0.5–1 mm. wide, valve backs with 2(3) longitudinal ridges (TAB. 35, fig. 3).
    Fruits
    Samaras pale brown, dull, 5–7 mm. long, to 1 mm. thick; wing 3.5–4.5 x 2–3 mm. (those from small valves smaller), whitish or pale-brown translucent, longitudinal nerve excurrent into a mucronate curved apex.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Andaman Is., Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, Caroline Is., Fiji, India, Jawa, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Marianas, Marshall Is., Myanmar, New Caledonia, New Guinea, New South Wales, Nicobar Is., Northern Territory, Philippines, Queensland, Samoa, Solomon Is., South China Sea, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Aldabra, Ascension, Bahamas, Belize, Bermuda, Canary Is., Cayman Is., Chagos Archipelago, Cocos (Keeling) Is., Cook Is., Cuba, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Florida, Gambia, Gilbert Is., Guinea, Gulf of Guinea Is., Haiti, Hawaii, Italy, Jamaica, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Laccadive Is., Leeward Is., Madagascar, Maldives, Marquesas, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Mozambique Channel I, Nansei-shoto, Nauru, Niue, Ogasawara-shoto, Pakistan, Pitcairn Is., Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Réunion, Senegal, Seychelles, Society Is., Somalia, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Tuamotu, Tubuai Is., Turks-Caicos Is., Uganda, Venezuela, Venezuelan Antilles, Wallis-Futuna Is., Windward Is.

    Casuarina equisetifolia L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jan 1, 2012 I Made Maduarta (Pung) [IMM 127], Lesser Sunda Is. K000733691
    Jan 1, 1965 Monica M. Cole [109], Papua New Guinea K000734288
    s.coll. [6815] K000872475
    s.coll. [6815] K000872476
    s.coll. [6815] K000872477

    First published in Amoen. Acad. 4: 143 (1759)

    Accepted by

    • Stinca, A. & al. (2017). New alien vascular species for the flora of southern Italy Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 72: 295-301.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Maliya, S.D. & Datt, B. (2010). A contribution to the flora of Katarniyaghat wildlife sanctuary, Baharaich district, Uttar Pradesh Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 34: 42-68.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Stinca, A. & al. (2017). New alien vascular species for the flora of southern Italy Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 72: 295-301.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Barger, T.W. & al. (2012). New and noteworthy records for the flora of Alabama Castanea 77: 257-269.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Figueiredo, E., Paiva, J., Stévart, T., Oliveira, F. & Smith, G.F. (2011). Annotated catalogue of the flowering plants of São Tomé and Príncipe Bothalia 41: 41-82.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Berendsohn, W.G., Gruber, A.K. & Monterrosa Salomón, J. (2009). Nova silva cusatlantica. Árboles nativos e introduciados de El Salvador. Parte 1: Angiospermae - Familias A a L Englera 29-1: 1-438.
    • Lisowski, S. (2009). Flore (Angiospermes) de la République de Guinée Scripta Botanica Belgica 41: 1-517.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Fairhurst, W. (2004). Flowering Plants of Ascension island: 1-300. Higham Press, Shirland, Alfreton, England.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
    • Dy Phon, P. (2000). Dictionnaire des plantes utilisées au Cambodge: 1-915. Chez l'auteur, Phnom Penh, Cambodia.
    • Sheppard, C.R.C. & Seaward, M.R.D. (eds.) (1999). Ecology of the Chagos archipelago: 1-350. Westbury Academic & Scientific Publishing, Otley.
    • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997). Flora of North America North of Mexico 3: 1-590. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
    • Ananda Rao, T. & Ellis, J.L. (1995). Flora of Lakshadweep islands off the Malabar coast, peninsular India, with emphasis on phytogeographical distribution of plants Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 19: 235-250.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Woodroffe, C.D. (1985). Vegetation and flora of Nui Atoll, Tuvalu Atoll Research Bulletin 283: 1-18.
    • Morat, P. & Veillon, J.-M. (1985). Contributions à la conaissance de la végétation et de la flore de Wallis et Futuna Bulletin du Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. Section B, Adansonia 7: 259-329.
    • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    • Sykes, W.R. (1970). Contributions to the flora of Niue Bulletin, New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research 200: 1-321.
    • Yuncker, T.G. (1959). Plants of Tonga Bernice P. Bishop Museum Bulletin 220: 1-283.
    • Fosberg, F.R. (1957). The Maldive islands, Indian Ocean Atoll Research Bulletin 58: 1-37.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 130, fig. 26, photo. 26 (1961).
    • Cufod., Enumeratio Plantarum Aethiopiae Spermatophyta (Supplement in Bull. Jard. Bot. Brux.) p. 2 (1953).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 122 (1949).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 182, photo. opp. p. 135 (1949).
    • Battiscombe & Dale, Trees and Shrubs of Kenya Colony ed. 2: 83 (1936).
    • C: H. Wright in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(2): 315 (1917).
    • Engl. in Die Pflanzenwelt Ost-Afrikas und der Nachbargebiete, Theile C: 159 (1895).
    • Forst., Char. Gen.: 103, t. 52 (1776).
    • L., Amoen. Acad. 4: 143 (1759).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Neotropikey
    Milliken, W., Klitgard, B. and Baracat, A. (2009 onwards), Neotropikey - Interactive key and information resources for flowering plants of the Neotropics.
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0