1. Family: Euphorbiaceae Juss.
    1. Vernicia Lour.

      1. This genus is accepted, and its native range is Indo-China to Japan.

    [FZ]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. Radcliffe-Smith. Flora Zambesiaca 9:4. 1996

    Habit
    Monoecious or subdioecious trees.
    Indumentum
    Indumentum simple or subsimple.
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, stipulate, long-petiolate, simple, entire or palmately lobed, palminerved.
    Stipules
    Stipules soon falling.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, thyrsiform, androgynous and protogynous with a single female flower and the rest male, or unisexual; bracts lanceolate, the lower bracts sometimes persistent, the upper soon falling.
    Flowers
    Flowers large. Male flowers: calyx closed in bud, valvately rupturing into 2–3 lobes; petals 5, free, contorted; disk glands 5, free, alternating with the petals; stamens 8–14, 2(3)-verticillate, the outer free or fused at the base, the inner fused for over half their length into a column, anthers subdorsifixed, introrse, longitudinally dehiscent, with a broad connective; pistillode absent. Female flowers: calyx, petals and disk more or less as in the male flowers; ovary 3(5)-locular, with 1 ovule per loculus; styles erect, 3(5), united at the base, bifid or bipartite.
    Fruits
    Fruits shallowly 3(5)-lobed, tardily dehiscent; exocarp fibrous; endocarp thinly woody or crustaceous.
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid-trigonous, ecarunculate; testa thick, woody; albumen hard; embryo straight; cotyledons broad, flat.
    [FTEA]

    Euphorbiaceae, A. R.-Smith. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1987

    Habit
    Monoecious or subdioecious trees
    Indumentum
    Indumentum simple or subsimple
    Leaves
    Leaves alternate, simple, entire or palmatilobed, petiolate, stipulate, the stipules soon deciduous
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences terminal, thyrsiform, androgynous and protogynous with a solitary terminal ♀ flower and several lateral ♂ flowers and cymules, or else the inflorescences unisexual; bracts lanceolate, the lower sometimes persistent, the upper soon deciduous
    Flowers
    Flowers large Male flowers: calyx closed in bud, later valvately rupturing into 2–3 lobes; petals 5, free, contorted; disc of 5 free erect glands; stamens 2-verticillate, (8–)10–14, the outer ± free or fused for a third of their length, the inner fused for over half their length, anthers introrse; pistillode 0 Female flowers: calyx, petals and disc ± as in the ♂ flowers; ovary 3(–5)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles 3(–5), ± free or united at the base, bifid
    Male
    Male flowers: calyx closed in bud, later valvately rupturing into 2–3 lobes; petals 5, free, contorted; disc of 5 free erect glands; stamens 2-verticillate, (8–)10–14, the outer ± free or fused for a third of their length, the inner fused for over half their length, anthers introrse; pistillode 0
    Female
    Female flowers: calyx, petals and disc ± as in the ♂ flowers; ovary 3(–5)-locular, with 1 ovule per locule; styles 3(–5), ± free or united at the base, bifid
    Fruits
    Fruits large, tardily dehiscent from the base; exocarp fibrous; endocarp woody or crustaceous, 3(–5)-locular
    Seeds
    Seeds ovoid-trigonous, ecarunculate, testa thick, woody, albumen hard; embryo straight; cotyledons broad, flat.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cambodia, China South-Central, China Southeast, Hainan, India, Japan, Myanmar, Taiwan, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Angola, Argentina Northeast, Assam, California, East Himalaya, Jawa, Korea, Leeward Is., Mozambique, Nepal, New South Wales, Paraguay, Puerto Rico, Trinidad-Tobago, Zimbabwe

    Vernicia Lour. appears in other Kew resources:

    First published in Fl. Cochinch.: 586 (1790)

    Accepted by

    • Govaerts, R., Frodin, D.G. & Radcliffe-Smith, A. (2000). World Checklist and Bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (and Pandaceae) 1-4: 1-1622. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.

    Literature

    Flora Zambesiaca
    • Fl. Cochinch.: 586 (1790).
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Fl. Cochinch.: 586 (1790)

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0