1. Family: Celastraceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Gymnosporia (Wight & Arn.) Hook.f.
      1. Gymnosporia heterophylla (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Loes.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Celastraceae, N.K.B. Robson, N. Hallé, B. Mathew & R. Blakelock†. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1994

    Habit
    Shrub or small tree, often spreading or straggling, or more rarely a shrublet (not in Flora area), (0.3–)1–7(–9) m. high, with spines up to 24 cm. long, axillary or terminating short axillary branches, glabrous (in Flora area), without latex; branches lined or angular or rarely subterete, pale green or rarely reddish purple when young, becoming terete (or rarely remaining angular), grey-brown or dark grey to purplish brown or whitish, usually without visible lenticels.
    Leaves
    Leaves fasciculate or not, petiolate; lamina pale to deep green above, concolorous or often grey-green beneath, often with pale midrib, rarely mottled when dry, ovate or oblong-ovate or elliptic or circular (on long shoots) to obovate or oblanceolate or linear-oblanceolate or spathulate (on fasciculate shoots), 1–9.5 × 0.4–5 cm., subacute or obtuse to rounded or emarginate and often shortly apiculate at the apex, with margins acutely or rarely obtusely shallowly and often irregularly serrulate (especially towards the apex) to entire, cuneate or rarely rounded to attenuate at the base, membranous to coriaceous, glabrous (in Flora area), with lateral nerves and reticulation varying in prominence and density; petiole 1–10 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes 0.5–4 cm. long, slender to ± stout, dichasial, solitary, axillary, or 1–7 on short axillary shoots, or rarely in axillary panicles, with peduncle 1–30 mm. long, glabrous, or occasionally absent; pedicels 1–7 mm. long, glabrous, articulated at or near the base; flowers scented or sometimes apparently malodorous, 2–24 or more in each cyme or very rarely solitary, 2–5 mm. in diameter, unisexual.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5(–6), equal, circular to triangular-lanceolate, 0.3–1(–1.5) mm. long, rounded to acute, glabrous, with margin ciliolate to denticulate.
    Corolla
    Petals 5(–6), greenish white to cream or yellowish, elliptic-oblong to oblong-spathulate, 1–3.5 mm. long, with margin finely ciliolate to entire.
    Flowers
    Male flowers:stamens 5(–6), 3/4–1/2 times as long as the petals, with filaments 1–2.5 mm. long, slender, arising below disc; disc relatively narrow, ± concave, 5(–6)-lobed; pistillode small, globose, with short style capitate, not immersed in the disc. Female flowers smaller than ♂, with staminodes 5, shorter than the ovary; disc as in ♂; ovary 2–3(–4)-locular, globose, not or scarcely immersed in the disc; style shorter than or equalling the ovary, shorter than to exceeding the petals, 2–3(–4)-branched, with small stigmas.
    Male
    Male flowers:stamens 5(–6), 3/4–1/2 times as long as the petals, with filaments 1–2.5 mm. long, slender, arising below disc; disc relatively narrow, ± concave, 5(–6)-lobed; pistillode small, globose, with short style capitate, not immersed in the disc.
    Female
    Female flowers smaller than ♂, with staminodes 5, shorter than the ovary; disc as in ♂; ovary 2–3(–4)-locular, globose, not or scarcely immersed in the disc; style shorter than or equalling the ovary, shorter than to exceeding the petals, 2–3(–4)-branched, with small stigmas.
    Fruits
    Capsule greenish yellow to red, obovoid or subpyriform to 3-gonous or globose, 3–9 mm. long, thinly to thickly coriaceous or slightly succulent, smooth or slightly rugulose, glabrous.
    Seeds
    Seeds 2–3(–4), reddish brown, glossy with a thin yellowish aril obliquely covering the lower 1/3–2/3.
    Figures
    Fig. 2/1–5.
    Habitat
    Riverine forest, forest margins, woodland thicket, often on sand; 0–2670 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K2 K3 K4 K5 K6 K7 T1 T2 T3 T4 T5 T6 T7 Angola south to Cape Province of South Africa and Madagascar
    [FZ]

    Celastraceae, N. K. Robson. Flora Zambesiaca 2:2. 1966

    Habit
    Shrub or tree, often spreading or straggling, or more rarely a shrublet, (0·3)1–7(9) m. high, unarmed or with green to brown spines up to 24 cm. long, axillary or terminating short axillary branches, glabrous or very rarely with young shoots and leaves puberulous (var. puberula), without latex; branches lined or angular or rarely subterete, pale green or rarely reddish-purple or glaucous at first, becoming terete (or rarely remaining angular), grey-brown or dark grey to purplish-brown or whitish, usually without visible lenticels.
    Leaves
    Leaves fasciculate or not, petiolate;lamina pale to deep green or rarely ± glaucous above, concolorous or often grey-green below, often with pale midrib, rarely mottled when dry, 1–9·5 × 0·4–5 cm., ovate or oblong-ovate or elliptic or circular (on long shoots) to obovate or oblanceolate or linear-oblanceolate or often spathulate (on fasciculate shoots), subacute or obtuse to rounded or emarginate and often shortly apiculate at the apex, with margin acutely or rarely obtusely shallowly and often irregularly serrulate (especially towards the apex) to entire, cuneate or rarely rounded to angustate at the base, membranous to coriaceous, with lateral nerves and reticulation varying in prominence and density; petiole 1–10 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Cymes dichasial, solitary and axillary or 1–7 on short axillary shoots, or rarely in axillary panicles, with peduncle 1–30 mm. long or occasionally absent; pedicels 1–7 mm. long, articulated at or near the base; flowers 2–24 or more in each cyme or very rarely solitary, 2–5 mm. in diam., always (?) dioecious, unscented or sometimes apparently malodorous.
    Calyx
    Sepals 5(6), equal, 0·3–1(1·5) mm., circular to triangular-lanceolate, rounded to acute, with margin ciliolate.
    Corolla
    Petals 5(6), white, 1–3·5 mm. long, elliptic-oblong to oblong-spathulate, with margin finely ciliolate to entire.
    Male
    Male flowers with stamens 5(6), shorter or longer than petals, with filaments 1–2·5 mm. long, slender, arising below disk; disk relatively narrow, ± concave, 5(6)-lobed;pistillode small, globose, with short style without spreading stigmas.
    Flowers
    Female flowers smaller than the male flowers, with staminodes 5 shorter than ovary; disk as in the male flowers; ovary 2–3(4)-locular, 0·3–0·5 mm. long, globose, not or scarcely immersed in the disk; style 0·2–0·5 mm. long, shorter than or equalling the ovary, shorter than or exceeding the petals, with 2–3(4) spreading stigmas. Male flowers with stamens 5(6), shorter or longer than petals, with filaments 1–2·5 mm. long, slender, arising below disk; disk relatively narrow, ± concave, 5(6)-lobed;pistillode small, globose, with short style without spreading stigmas.
    Female
    Female flowers smaller than the male flowers, with staminodes 5 shorter than ovary; disk as in the male flowers; ovary 2–3(4)-locular, 0·3–0·5 mm. long, globose, not or scarcely immersed in the disk; style 0·2–0·5 mm. long, shorter than or equalling the ovary, shorter than or exceeding the petals, with 2–3(4) spreading stigmas.
    Fruits
    Capsule yellow or yellow-tinged-red or red, 3–10 mm. long, obovoid or subpyriform to 3-gonous or subglobose, thinly to thickly coriaceous or slightly succulent, smooth or rugulose.
    Seeds
    Seeds 1–3(4), reddish-brown, glossy, with a thin yellowish aril obliquely covering the lower 1/2–2/3.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Cape Provinces, KwaZulu-Natal, Northern Provinces, Swaziland

    Gymnosporia heterophylla (Eckl. & Zeyh.) Loes. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sanderson [s.n.], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035885
    Drege [s.n.], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035880
    Drege, South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035881
    Gerrard [1377], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035875
    Gerrard [1377], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035876
    Wood, J.M. [1119], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035884
    Ecklon [948 ?], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035878
    Ecklon [943], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035879
    Pappe [s.n.], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035886
    Gill [s.n.], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035874
    Atherstone [104], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035882 Unknown type material
    Atherstone [s.n.], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035883
    Atherstone [476], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035887 syntype
    Harley, F.A. [1], South Africa Maytenus heterophylla K000035877

    First published in Bull. Herb. Boissier 4: 429 (1896)

    Accepted by

    • Jordaan, M. (2012). A monograph of Gymnosporia (Celastraceae): 1-759. Thesis, Faculty Nat. Agric. Sci., Univ. of Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Seed Plants Database in ACCESS G: 1-40325.

    Not accepted by

    • Kalema, J. & Beentje, H. (2012). Conservation checklist of the trees of Uganda: 1-235. Kew Publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. [Cited as Maytenus heterophylla.]

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Jordaan, M. (2012). A monograph of Gymnosporia (Celastraceae): 1-759. Thesis, Faculty Nat. Agric. Sci., Univ. of Pretoria.

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/