1. Family: Ceratophyllaceae Gray
    1. Genus: Ceratophyllum L.
      1. Ceratophyllum submersum L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Europe to Central Asia, Tropical Africa to Arabian Peninsula, SE. U.S.A., Hispaniola.

    [FTEA]

    Ceratophyllaceae, C.M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1985

    Habit
    Very similar to C. demersum in form, but usually more delicate and filamentous in appearance, differing as follows.
    Leaves
    Leaves usually lighter green, 2–4 cm. long, branched dichotomously 3–4 times, sometimes one part of leaf branched more than another, rarely a few leaves of whorl only twice branched, usually rather fine, 0.1–0.3 mm. in diameter, but lower 1–2 segments sometimes swollen and up to 2.5 mm. across, marginal spiny teeth always minute, less than 0.1 or 0.2 mm., on lower 2 segments few or absent, few or more rarely numerous on final 2 segments.
    Male
    Male flowers up to 2 mm. in diameter; mature anthers 0.6–0.8 mm. long, 0.4–0.7 mm. wide (length 1–1.5 times width).
    Flowers
    Female perianth-segments usually longer, (1.5–)1.8–2 mm. long, 0.1–0.3 mm. wide, and relatively narrower (length (5–)7–10 times width). Male flowers up to 2 mm. in diameter; mature anthers 0.6–0.8 mm. long, 0.4–0.7 mm. wide (length 1–1.5 times width).
    Female
    Female perianth-segments usually longer, (1.5–)1.8–2 mm. long, 0.1–0.3 mm. wide, and relatively narrower (length (5–)7–10 times width).
    Fruits
    Mature fruit with apical spine less than 1 up to 9 mm.; surface sometimes with few large warts or spines.
    [FZ]

    Ceratophyllaceae, C. M. Wilmot-Dear. Flora Zambesiaca 9:6. 1991

    Habit
    Aquatic herb similar to Ceratophyllum demersum, but usually more delicate, differing as follows: Leaves usually lighter green, 2–4 cm. long, branching dichotomously 3–4 times (rarely twice in some whorls), usually rather fine, 0.1–0.3 mm. thick, to 2.5 mm. thick in lower segments, marginal teeth few, inconspicuous, often absent from lower segments, up to 0.1–0.2 mm. long.
    Male
    Male flowers to 2 mm. in diam.; anthers 0.6–0.8 x 0.4–0.7 mm., often smaller and relatively broader than in C. demersum.
    Flowers
    Female perianth lobes (1.5) 1.8–2 x 0.1–0.3 mm., relatively narrower and usually longer than in C. demersum. Male flowers to 2 mm. in diam.; anthers 0.6–0.8 x 0.4–0.7 mm., often smaller and relatively broader than in C. demersum.
    Female
    Female perianth lobes (1.5) 1.8–2 x 0.1–0.3 mm., relatively narrower and usually longer than in C. demersum.
    Fruits
    Fruit usually markedly laterally flattened with a marginal rim or wing.

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Albania, Algeria, Altay, Austria, Baltic States, Bangladesh, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Central European Rus, Chad, Corse, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, Florida, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Hungary, Italy, Kazakhstan, Kenya, Kirgizstan, Krym, Libya, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Northwest European R, Oman, Poland, Romania, Sicilia, South European Russi, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, West Siberia, Yugoslavia, Zaïre

    Ceratophyllum submersum L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Hall, J.B. [GC581], Ghana 28360.000
    Hall, J.B. [3220], Ghana 28366.000
    Hall, J.B. [3410], Ghana 28367.000

    First published in Sp. Pl. ed. 2: 1409 (1763)

    Accepted by

    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Sheremetova, S.A., Ebel, A.L. & Buko, T.E. (2011). Supplement to the flora of Kemerovo region since 2001 till 2010 Turczaninowia 14(1): 65-74.
    • Govaerts, R. (2003). World Checklist of Selected Plant Families Database in ACCESS: 1-216203. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Mosti, S., Raffaelli, M. & Tardelli, M. (2012). Contributions to the flora of central-southern Dhofar (Sultanate of Oman) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 67: 65-91.
    • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 3: 1-449. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
    • Lazkov, G.A. & Sultanova, B.A. (2011). Checklist of vascular plants of Kyrgyzstan Norrlinia 24: 1-166.
    • Sheremetova, S.A., Ebel, A.L. & Buko, T.E. (2011). Supplement to the flora of Kemerovo region since 2001 till 2010 Turczaninowia 14(1): 65-74.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • A.D.Q. Agnew, Upland Kenya Wild Flowers p. 81 (1974).
    • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 165 (1951).
    • L., Sp. Pl., ed. 2: 1409 (1763).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0