1. Family: Basellaceae Raf.
    1. Genus: Basella L.
      1. Basella alba L.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tropical Asia.

    [FTEA]

    Basellaceae, B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1968

    Habit
    Glabrous annual or shortly lived perennial, succulent tangled twiner; stems much branched, 2–10 m. long, sometimes almost leafless, greenish or reddish.
    Leaves
    Leaf-lamina ovate to suborbicular, (2–)5–15 cm. long, (l.25–)5–13.5 cm. broad, acute or acuminate (less commonly obtuse), usually widely cordate at the base; lateral nerves 4–5 on either side; petiole (1–)2.5–6.5 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers white, rose or purplish, (3–)4–5 mm. long, in long-peduncled spikes, 2.5–15(–25) cm. long, usually unbranched (in African specimens at least) but branched in some cultivated forms.
    Perianth
    Perianth fleshy, urceolate, somewhat saccate at the base; lobes short, ovate, about one-third the length of the tube, not opening.
    Fruits
    Fruits ± 0.5 cm. in diameter (4–7 × 5–10 mm. according to van Steenis), red, white or black; surface crinkly in the dry state.
    Figures
    Fig. 1/1–10.
    Habitat
    In thickets, forest edges, margins of cultivated land and swampy ground, frequently by rivers or streams; 0 (cultivated)–2450 m.
    Distribution
    K1 K3 K4 K6 T1 T2 T3 T4 T6 T7 U2 U4 Z Madeira, West Africa to Cameroun Republic, S. Tomé, Congo Republic, Sudan Republic, Ethiopia, Rwanda Republic, Mozambique, Malawi, Zambia and Angola but rare in central AfricaAsia to China, Japan, Philippines, Borneo, Fiji and Hawaii, also in West Indies, Brazil and Guianaalmost certainly indigenous in Africa.
    [FZ]

    Basellaceae, B. L. Stannard. Flora Zambesiaca 9:1. 1988

    Habit
    Plant 1–8 m. tall; stems much branched, sometimes sparsely leaved, sometimes reddish.
    Leaves
    Leaves: lamina 2.5–15 × 2.0–12.5 cm., ovate to circular, usually acute or acuminate, sometimes rounded or emarginate at apex, usually cordate at base, entire, lateral nerves 3–4 (5) on either side; petioles 0.5–9 cm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences axillary, long peduncled, usually unbranched spikes, 1.5–22 (30) cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers 2.5–6 mm. long, white, pink or mauvish.
    Perianth
    Perianth somewhat fleshy, urceolate, lobes c. one-quarter length of tube, remaining closed.
    Stamens
    Stamens inserted near apex of tube.
    Ovary
    Ovary 0.5 mm. tall, ovoid.
    Style
    Style with 3 linear stigmas, 0.5 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit 4–5 mm. diam., subglobose, black.
    [FWTA]

    Basellaceae, Hutchinson and Dalziel. Flora of West Tropical Africa 1:1. 1954

    Habit
    A climber, cultivated in vegetable gardens; sometimes subspontaneous.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bangladesh, Borneo, Cambodia, India, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Malaya, Maluku, Myanmar, New Guinea, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Thailand, Vietnam

    Introduced into:

    Alabama, Andaman Is., Angola, Belize, Benin, Brazil Southeast, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China Southeast, Christmas I., Congo, Cook Is., Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Dominican Republic, Ethiopia, Fiji, Florida, Gilbert Is., Guinea-Bissau, Gulf of Guinea Is., Hainan, Haiti, Ivory Coast, Jamaica, Kenya, Leeward Is., Malawi, Mauritius, Mozambique, New Caledonia, Nigeria, Puerto Rico, Rodrigues, Rwanda, Réunion, Senegal, Society Is., Southwest Caribbean, Sudan, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Windward Is., Zambia, Zaïre

    Basella alba L. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Jun 1, 2008 Tchiengue, B. [2203], Cameroon K000436603
    Jan 1, 2003 Williams, S. [143], Cameroon K000000011
    Jul 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [9147], Cameroon K000027192
    Jul 1, 2002 Cheek, M. [9147], Cameroon K000749780
    Aug 1, 1997 Etuge, M. [2320], Cameroon K000580142
    Feb 1, 1997 Cheek, M. [8539], Cameroon K000580152
    Milne-Redhead, E. [11402], Tanzania 3750.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [412], Uganda 23696.000
    Dawkins, H.C. [590], Uganda 24377.000
    Faulkner, H., Tanzania 25710.000
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6960], India K001126363
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6960] K001126364
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6961], India Basella cordifolia K001126374
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6961], Myanmar Basella cordifolia K001126375
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6961], Myanmar Basella cordifolia K001126376
    Wallich, N. [Cat. no. 6961], Myanmar Basella cordifolia K001126377
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6961], India Basella cordifolia K001126365
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6961], India Basella cordifolia K001126366
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6961], India Basella cordifolia K001126367
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6961] Basella cordifolia K001126368
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6961] Basella cordifolia K001126369
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6961] Basella cordifolia K001126370
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6961] Basella cordifolia K001126371
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6961] Basella cordifolia K001126372
    s.coll. [Cat. no. 6961] Basella cordifolia K001126373

    First published in Sp. Pl.: 272 (1753)

    Accepted by

    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Sikarwar, R.L.S. (2014). Angiosperm diversity assessment of Chitrakootthe legendary place of Vindhyan range, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 38: 563-619.
    • Velayos, M., Barberá, P., Cabezas, F.J., de la Estrella, M., Fero, M. & Aedo, C. (2014). Checklist of the vascular plants of Annobón (Equatorial Guinea) Phytotaxa 171: 1-78.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Girmansyah, D. & al. (eds.) (2013). Flora of Bali an annotated checklist: 1-158. Herbarium Bogorensis, Indonesia.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Fischer, E., Rembold, K., Althof, A. & Obholzer, J. (2010). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Kakamega forest, Western province, Kenya Journal of East African Natural History 99: 129-226.
    • Lejoy, J., Ndjele, M.-B. & Geerinck, D. (2010). Catalogue-flore des plantes vasculaires des districts de Kisangani et de la Tshopo (RD Congo) Taxonomania. Revue de Taxonomie et de Nomenclature Botaniques 30: 1-307.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.

    Literature

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    • Chev. Bot. 535.
    • —F.T.A. 6, 1: 94
    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Franck, A.R., Anderson, L.C., Burkhalter, J.R. & Dickman, S. (2016). Additions to the flora of Florida, U.S.A. (2010-2015) Journal of the Botanical Research Institute of Texas 10: 175-190.
    • Baksh-Comeau, Y., Maharaj, S.S., Adams, C.D., Harris, S.A., Filer, D.L. & Hawthorne, W.D. (2016). An annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Trinidad and Tobago with analysis of vegetation types and botanical 'hotspots' Phytotaxa 250: 1-431.
    • Sykes, W.R. (2016). Flora of the Cook Islands: 1-973. National Tropical Botanical Garden, Hawaii.
    • Brundu, G. & Camarda, I. (2013). The Flora of Chad: a checklist and brief analysis PhytoKeys 23: 1-18.
    • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
    • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
    • Kral, R., Diamond, A.R., Ginzbarg, S.L., Hansen, C.J., Haynes, R.R., Keener, B.R., Lelong, M.G., Spaulding, D.D. & Woods, M. (2011). Annotated checklist of the vascular plants of Alabama: 1-112. Botanical reseach institute of Texas.
    • Pandey, R.P. & Dilwakar, P.G. (2008). An integrated check-list flora of Andaman and Nicobar islands, India Journal of Economic and Taxonomic Botany 32: 403-500.
    • Eriksson, R. (2007). A synopsis of Basellaceae Kew Bulletin 62: 297-320.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Gonzalez, F., Nelson Diaz, J. & Lowry, P. (1995). Flora Illustrada de San Andrés y Providencia: 1-281. Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Colombia.
    • MacKee, H.S. (1994). Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, ed. 2: 1-164. Museum national d'histoire naturelle, Paris.
    • George, A.S., Orchard, A.E. & Hewson, H.J. (eds.) (1993). Oceanic islands 2 Flora of Australia 50: 1-606. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Fosberg, F.R. & Sachet, M.-H. (1987). Flora of the Gilbert Island, Kiribati, Checklist Atoll Research Bulletin 295: 1-33.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(1): 1-85. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Berhaut, J. (1974). Flore illustrée du Sénégal 2: 1-695. Gouvernement du Sénégal, Ministère du développement rural direction des eaux et forêta, Dakar.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • van Steenis in Fl. Males., ser. 1, 5 (3): 300, fig. 1 (1957).
    • Keay, Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 1: 155, fig. 57 (1954).
    • Hauman in Flore du Congo Belge et du Ruanda-Urundi, 2: 129 (1951).
    • R. O. Williams, Useful and Ornamental Plants in Zanzibar and Pemba p. 141, fig. (1949).
    • Robyns, Flore des Spermatophytes du Parc National Albert 1: 155 (1948).
    • Peter, Flora von Deutsch-Ostafrika 2: 272(1938).
    • Bak. & C.B. Cl. in Flora of Tropical Africa 6(1): 94 (1909).
    • Volkens in A. Engler & K. Prantl, Die Natürlichen Pflanzenfamilien 3(1a): 126, fig. 73/A–F (1893).
    • Moq. in DC., Prodr. 13 (2): 223 (1849).
    • Roxb., Fl. Ind. 2: 104 (1832).
    • L., Sp. Pl.: 272 (1753).

    Sources

    Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    Flora of West Tropical Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0