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Evidence suggests that Beta vulgaris has been cultivated since the 1st century AD, over which time a diverse range of forms have been developed. These include sugar beet, which is a major agricultural crop, providing about 30% of the world's sugar. Fodder beet cultivars are also an important source of cattle-feed.

Beta vulgaris (beet)

[KSP]

Kew Species Profiles

General Description

Evidence suggests that Beta vulgaris has been cultivated since the 1st century AD, over which time a diverse range of forms have been developed. These include sugar beet, which is a major agricultural crop, providing about 30% of the world's sugar. Fodder beet cultivars are also an important source of cattle-feed.

Beta vulgaris is a member of the amaranth and goosefoot family (Amaranthaceae), which also includes spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa). The generic name Beta derives from the Celtic bett meaning red. 

Beetroot was used medicinally in Ancient Rome and is used in the herbal treatment of cancer today. It contains high concentrations of red betalains (anti-oxidants), vitamin C, tyrosine, iron and folic acid. Some individuals are unable to metabolize red betanin, leading to the production of red urine (known as beeturia).

Species Profile
Cultivar groups

There are considered to be four major cultivar groups of Beta vulgaris :

Garden beet group (beetroot) Leaf beet group (rhubarb chard, spinach beet, Swiss chard, silver beet) Sugar beet group (sugar beet) Fodder beet group (mangel-wurzel, mangold) Geography and distribution

Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima (sea beet) grows wild along the Atlantic and Mediterranean coasts of Europe, where it is found near the sea shore, particularly in heavy alluvial soils and clays at disturbed sites.

Cultivars of Beta vulgaris are grown throughout Europe and North America.

Description

Overview: A polymorphic biennial (flowering in the second year of growth), up to 2 m tall when in flower.

Leaves: Basal leaves forming a rosette.

Flowers: Small, green, borne in clusters subtended by bracts, forming dense, usually branched inflorescences. Each flower contains two stigmas (female parts).

Fruits and seeds: 'Seeds' are actually fruits that are attached to each other and enveloped in a woody covering (calyces). 

Leaf beet cultivar group (rhubarb chard, spinach beet, Swiss chard, silver beet) - root not usually swollen, leaf midrib of some cultivars dark orange or scarlet, lamina sometimes puckered.

Garden and fodder beet groups (beetroot, mangel-wurzel, mangold) - hypocotyl (area just above the root) swollen, plant often flushed red-purple or yellow-white but lamina and inflorescence axis usually green.

Sugar beet - whitish, conical 'roots', up to 50 cm long.

Beta vulgaris subspecies maritima (sea beet) - stem to 80 cm tall, root not swollen, leaves to 10 cm long, flowers in clusters of 1-3.

Uses Food and drink (sugar, root vegetable, leafy vegetable)

Sugar beet is a major agricultural crop throughout Europe and North America, and the most important source of sugar in temperate countries. Sugar beet 'roots' contain up to 20% sugar by weight and have been used for commercial sugar extraction since 1801.

Beetroot is a popular vegetable, eaten boiled, pickled, or grated raw for salads. It is the main ingredient of borscht, a soup of Ukrainian origin. Beetroot juice is marketed as a healthy drink, alone or mixed with other juices.

Spinach beet is cultivated for its succulent leaves, which are similar in flavour to spinach and used in the same way. Cultivars known by the common names seakale-beet, chard, swiss chard and rhubarb chard differ mainly in having a broad, white leaf stalk, which is often eaten as a separate vegetable, while the green blade is used like spinach. Cultivars with reddish-purple, yellow or orange leaf-stalks and blades are available.

Sea beet leaves are one of the most popular wild vegetables in Britain, where the tangy leaves are cooked like spinach.

Livestock feed

Cultivars from the fodder beet group, known by common names such as mangel-wurzel and mangold, are grown specifically as cattle feed. The UK record for the largest recorded 'root' (actually a swollen hypocotyl) is 24.72 kg.

The leafy tops of sugar beet are a good animal feed, as are the root residue and molasses produced during sugar extraction.

Other uses

Molasses produced during the extraction of sugar from sugar beet is used to make industrial alcohol. Filter cake, the residue left behind after the purification of sugar beet juice, is used as manure. Beetroot is used as a natural dye. Sugar beet roots have been proposed as a potential biofuel.

The flavour enhancer monosodium glutamate (MSG) is sometimes produced by bacterial fermentation using carbohydrates from sugar beet molasses.

Cultivars such as Beta vulgaris 'Dracaenofolia', which has narrow, deep scarlet leaves, are grown as ornamentals.

Millennium Seed Bank: Seed storage

The Millennium Seed Bank Partnership aims to save plant life worldwide, focusing on plants under threat and those of most use in the future. Seeds are dried, packaged and stored at a sub-zero temperature in our seed bank vault.

More than 80 collections of Beta vulgaris seeds are held in Kew's Millennium Seed Bank based at Wakehurst in West Sussex.

This species at Kew

Beta vulgaris can be seen growing in the Queen's Garden (behind Kew Palace) at Kew.

Dried specimens of Beta vulgaris are held in Kew's Herbarium where they are available to researchers by appointment. Details of specimens of other Beta species can be seen online in Kew's Herbarium Catalogue.

Specimens of beet seeds, briquettes, pulp and pellets, as well as sugar, paper and insulating boards made from it, are held in Kew's Economic Botany Collection in the Sir Joseph Banks Building, where they are available to researchers by appointment.

Distribution
Belgium, France, United Kingdom
Ecology
Coastal.
Conservation
Widespread in cultivation.
Hazards

None known.

[UNAL]

Bernal, R., G. Galeano, A. Rodríguez, H. Sarmiento y M. Gutiérrez. 2017. Nombres Comunes de las Plantas de Colombia. http://www.biovirtual.unal.edu.co/nombrescomunes/

Vernacular
remolacha

[CPLC]

Bernal, R., Gradstein, S.R. & Celis, M. (eds.). 2015. Catálogo de plantas y líquenes de Colombia. Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá. http://catalogoplantasdecolombia.unal.edu.co

Distribution
Cultivada en Colombia; Alt. 1000 - 2600 m.; Andes.
Morphology General Habit
Hierba

[UPB]

The Useful Plants of Boyacá project

Ecology
Alt. 1000 - 2600 m.
Distribution
Cultivated in Colombia.
Morphology General Habit
Herb.

[FSOM]

M. Thulin et al. Flora of Somalia, Vol. 1-4 [updated 2008] https://plants.jstor.org/collection/FLOS

Morphology Leaves
Basal leaves cordate-ovate, 10–20 x 5–10 cm, stem leaves smaller and narrower
Morphology Reproductive morphology Inflorescences
Inflorescences dense, much-branched, without bracts in the upper parts.
Distribution
Grown at least in N2 and perhaps sometimes escaping
Note
The cultivated beets are biennial with swollen root and include, e.g., beetroot and sugar beet. In Somalia only beetroot is known.

[KSP]
Use
Food and drink, livestock-feed, traditional medicine.

[UPB]
Use Food
Leaves - prepared in soups (Cuervo 1999).
Use Gene Sources
Crop wild relatives which may possess beneficial traits of value in breeding programmes (State of the World's Plants 2016).
Use Medicines Unspecified Medicinal Disorders
Medicinal (Instituto Humboldt 2014).

Native to:

Albania, Algeria, Azores, Baleares, Belgium, Bulgaria, Canary Is., Corse, Cyprus, East Aegean Is., Egypt, France, Germany, Great Britain, Greece, Gulf States, India, Iran, Iraq, Ireland, Italy, Kriti, Krym, Kuwait, Lebanon-Syria, Libya, Morocco, Netherlands, North Caucasus, Oman, Pakistan, Palestine, Portugal, Sardegna, Saudi Arabia, Sicilia, Sinai, Spain, Transcaucasus, Tunisia, Turkey, Turkey-in-Europe, Yemen, Yugoslavia

Introduced into:

Alabama, Altay, Argentina Northeast, Argentina Northwest, Argentina South, Assam, Baltic States, Bangladesh, California, Cameroon, Cape Provinces, Cayman Is., Central European Rus, Chile Central, Chile North, China North-Central, Connecticut, Costa Rica, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, East European Russia, Ecuador, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Finland, Honduras, Inner Mongolia, Juan Fernández Is., Korea, Madeira, Maine, Marianas, Massachusetts, Mexico Northwest, Nepal, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New South Wales, New York, New Zealand North, New Zealand South, North Carolina, North European Russi, Northwest European R, Norway, Pennsylvania, Poland, Puerto Rico, Rhode I., South Australia, South Carolina, South European Russi, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Sweden, Tadzhikistan, Ukraine, Uruguay, Vermont, Victoria, Vietnam, Virginia, West Virginia, Western Sahara

English
Beet
Spanish
Acelga, remolacha.

Beta vulgaris L. appears in other Kew resources:

Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
Calizzi, K. [32103], Iraq K000731826

First published in Sp. Pl.: 222 (1753)

Accepted by

  • (1984). Flora of Australia 4: 1-354. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Cossu, T.A, Camarda, I. & Brundu, G. (2014). A catalogue of non-native weeds in irrigated crops in Sardinia (Italy) Webbia; Raccolta de Scritti Botanici 69: 145-156.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Freitag, H. & al. (2001). Flora of Pakistan 204: 1-217. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Govaerts, R. (1996). World Checklist of Seed Plants 2(1, 2): 1-492. MIM, Deurne.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(1): 1-904. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Hedge, I.C., Akhani, H., Freitag, H., Kothe-Heinrich, G., Podlech, D., Rilke, S. & Uotila, P. (1997). Flora Iranica 172: 1-371. Naturhistorisches Museums Wien.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Armemov, I.A. (2012). Opredelitel' Rastenii Respublika Altai: 1-640. Novosibirsk: Izd-vo SO RAN.
  • Llewellyn, O.A., Hall, M., Miller, A.G., Al-Abbasi, T.M., Al-Wetaid, A.H., Al-Harbi, R.J. & Al-Shammari, K.F. (2011). Important plant areas in the Arabian peninsula: 4. Jabal Aja Edinburgh Journal of Botany 68: 199-224.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1968). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 3: 1-710. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Singh, A. (2012). Exotic flora of the Chandauli district Uttar Pradesh, India: an overview Indian Journal of Forestry 35: 79-84.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Vladimirov, V., Dane, F., Matevski, V. & Kit Tan (2012). New floristic records in the Balkans: 18 Phytologia Balcanica 18: 69-92.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O. & Belgrano, M.J. (eds.) (2020). Flora Argentina. Flora vascular de la República Argentina 19(1): 1-378. INTA, IMBIV & IBODA.

Not accepted by

  • Ghazanfar, S.A. & Edmandson, J.R. (eds.) (2016). Flora of Iraq 5(1): 1-284. Ministry of Agriculture & Agrarian Reform, Baghdad. [Cited as Beta maritima.]

Literature

Kew Species Profiles

  • Huxley, A., Griffiths, M. & Levy, M. (eds) (1999). The New Royal Horticultural Society Dictionary of Gardening. Volume 1 (A to C). Macmillan Reference, London.
  • Letschert, J. P. W. & Frese, L. (1993). Analysis of morphological variation in wild beet ( Beta vulgaris L.) from Sicily. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 40: 15–24.
  • Mabberley, D. J. (2008). Mabberley’s Plant-book: a Portable Dictionary of Plants, their Classification and Uses. 3rd edition. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  • Mabey, R. (1997). Flora Britannica. Chatto & Windus, London.
  • Vaughan, J. G. & Geissler, C. A. (2009). The New Oxford Book of Food Plants. 2nd Edition. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia

  • ColPlantA (2021). "ColPlantA. Facilitated by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet; http://www.colplanta.org/"

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project

  • Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. (2016). Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/
  • Cuervo, S. (1999). Origen de las tecnologías agrícolas en el altiplano boyacense. Universidad Pedagógica y Tecnológica de Colombia. Facultad de Ciencias Económicas y Administrativas. Tunja. Colombia
  • Instituto de Investigación de Recursos Biológicos Alexander von Humbodlt (2014). Plantas alimenticias y medicinales nativas de Colombia. 2567 registros, aportados por: Castellanos, C. (Contacto del recurso), Valderrama, N. (Creador del recurso, Autor), Castro, C. (Proveedor de metadatos), Bernal, Y. (Autor), García, N. (Autor). Versión 11.0. http://i2d.humboldt.org.co/ceiba/resource.do?r=ls_colombia_magnoliophyta_2014

Kew Backbone Distributions

  • (1984). Flora of Australia 4: 1-354. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
  • Acevedo-Rodríguez, P. & Strong, M.T. (2012). Catalogue of seed plants of the West Indies Smithsonian Contributions to Botany 98: 1-1192.
  • Authier, P. & Covillot, J. (2011). Catalogue actualisé des plantes de l'île de Rhodes (Grèce) Saussurea; Travaux de la Société Botanique de Genève 41: 131-170.
  • Barooah, C. & Ahmed, I. (2014). Plant diversity of Assam. A checklist of Angiosperms and Gymnosperms: 1-599. Assam science technology and environment council, India.
  • Boulos, L. (1999). Flora of Egypt 1: 1-419. Al Hadara Publishing, Cairo.
  • Chang, C.S., Kim, H. & Chang, K.S. (2014). Provisional checklist of vascular plants for the Korea peninsula flora (KPF): 1-660. DESIGNPOST.
  • Danihelka, J. Chrtek, J. & Kaplan, Z. (2012). Checklist of vascular plants of the Czech Republic Preslia. Casopsi Ceské Botanické Spolecnosti 84: 647-811.
  • Darbyshire, I., Kordofani, M., Farag, I., Candiga, R. & Pickering, H. (eds.) (2015). The Plants of Sudan and South Sudan: 1-400. Kew publishing, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
  • Dassanayake (ed.) (1995). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 9: 1-482. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
  • Dobignard, A. & Chatelain, C. (2011). Index synonymique de la flore d'Afrique du nord 2: 1-429. Éditions des conservatoire et jardin botaniques, Genève.
  • Edwards, S., Tadesse, M., Demissew, S. & Hedberg, I. (eds.) (2000). Flora of Ethiopia and Eritrea 2(1): 1-532. The National Herbarium, Addis Ababa University, Ethiopia & The Department of Systematic Botany, Upps.
  • Flora of North America Editorial Committee (2003). Flora of North America North of Mexico 4: 1-559. Oxford University Press, New York, Oxford.
  • Fosberg, F.R., Sachet, M.-H., Oliver, R. (1979). A geographical checklist of the Micronesian Dicotyledonae Micronesica; Journal of the College of Guam 15: 41-295.
  • Garcillán, P.P. & al. (2013). Plantas no nativas naturalizadas de la península de Baja California, México Botanical Sciences 91: 461-475.
  • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
  • Gilman, A.V. (2015). New flora of Vermont Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden 110: 1-614.
  • Greuter, W. & Raus, T. (eds.) (2010). Med-Checklist Notulae, 29 Willdenowia 40: 189-204.
  • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera, C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2020). Manual de Plantas de Costa Rica 4(1): 1-904. Missouri Botanical Garden Press.
  • Hara, H., Stearn, W.T. & Williams, H.J. (1982). An Enumeration of the Flowering Plants of Nepal 3: 1-226. Trustees of British Museum, London.
  • Jonsell, B. (ed.) (2001). Flora Nordica 2: 1-430. The Bergius Foundaton.
  • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánez, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 75: i-viii, 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • Krasnoborov, I.M. & Armemov, I.A. (2012). Opredelitel' Rastenii Respublika Altai: 1-640. Novosibirsk: Izd-vo SO RAN.
  • Kravchenko, A.V., Timofeeva, V.V., Rudkocskaya, O.A. & Fadeeva, M.A. (2008). Vascular plant species new and rare to Karelia Botanicheskii Zhurnal. Moscow & Leningrad 94: 776-788.
  • Lê, T.C. (2003). Danh l?c các loài th?c v?t Vi?t Nam 2: 1-1203. Hà N?i : Nhà xu?t b?n Nông nghi?p.
  • Miller, A.G. & Cope, T.A. (1996). Flora of the Arabian peninsula and Socotra 1: 1-586. Edinburgh university press.
  • Mostaph, M.K. & Uddin, S.B. (2013). Dictionary of plant names of Bangladesh, Vasc. Pl.: 1-434. Janokalyan Prokashani, Chittagong, Bangladesh.
  • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
  • Onana, J.M. (2011). The vascular plants of Cameroon a taxonomic checklist with IUCN assessments: 1-195. National herbarium of Cameroon, Yaoundé.
  • Ovczinnikov, P.N. (ed.) (1968). Flora Tadzhikskoi SSR 3: 1-710. Izd-vo Akademii nauk SSSR, Moskva.
  • Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) in Takhtajan, A.L. (ed.) (2012). Konspectus Flora Kavkaza 3(2): 1-623. Editio Universitatis Petropolitanae.
  • Tutin, T.G. & al. (eds.) (1993). Flora Europaea ed. 2, 1: 1-581. Cambridge University Press.
  • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2003). Flora of China 5: 1-505. Science Press (Beijing) & Missouri Botanical Garden Press (St. Louis).
  • Zuloaga, F.O., Morrone, O. , Belgrano, M.J., Marticorena, C. & Marchesi, E. (eds.) (2008). Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares del Cono Sur Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 107: 1-3348. Missouri Botanical Garden.
  • von Raab-Straube, E. (ed.) (2005-continuously updated). The Euro+Med PlantBase - the information resource for Euro-Mediterranean plant diversity http://ww2.bgbm.org/EuroPlusMed/query.asp.

Flora of Somalia

  • Flora Somalia, Vol 1, (1993) Author: by I. Friis & M. G. Gilbert [updated by M. Thulin 2008]

Art and Illustrations in Digifolia
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew

Catálogo de Plantas y Líquenes de Colombia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Colombian resources for Plants made Accessible
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Flora of Somalia
Flora of Somalia
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Herbarium Catalogue Specimens

Kew Backbone Distributions
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2021. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
© Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

Kew Science Photographs
Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

Kew Species Profiles
Kew Species Profiles
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Universidad Nacional de Colombia
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

Useful Plants of Boyacá Project
ColPlantA database
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0
http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/