1. Family: Fabaceae Lindl.
    1. Genus: Myroxylon L.f.
      1. Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Mexico to S. Tropical America.

    [KBu]

    Sartori, Â.L.B., Lewis, G.P., de Freitas Mansano, V. et al. 2015. A revision of the genus Myroxylon (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae)Kew Bulletin 70: 48. DOI https://doi.org/10.1007/s12225-015-9604-7

    Type
    Type: Venezuela: Puerto Cabello, s.d., A. Goering 3/69? (neotype K, selected here, isoneotype NY 02256475). We have not been able to locate any original material of Toluifera balsamum L. (pers. comm. Cafferty, Linnean Plant Name Typification Project) or any type material studied by Harms in Berlin. In consequence, we here designate as a neotype a specimen collected in Puerto Cabello, which best fits (as to geographical locality) the species description published in the protologue.
    Habit
    Tree (8 –) 15 – 50 m tall
    Leaves
    Leaves 5 –11-foliolate, petiole, rachis and petiolules sparsely ferruginous-tomentose; petiole 1 – 2.7 cm long; rachis 2.7 – 12 (– 17) cm long; petiolules 2 – 6 mm long; leaflets 5.5 – 10.5 × 2 – 5 cm, oblong to elliptic, apex acuminate or long-acuminate, base attenuate or rounded, terminal leaflets elliptic to rhombic, the lower pairs ovate, margin sinuous, entire, concolorous or discolorous, both surfaces glabrous or sparsely sericeous on the blade and midrib, adaxial surface dull (not shiny), veins prominent on both surfaces, pellucid dots and streaks inconspicuous unless leaflet held up to the light
    Inflorescences
    Racemes terminal and axillary, equalling or longer than the leaves, the axis ferruginous-tomentose or greyish tomentose, (4.5 –) 16.5 – 19 cm long; bract lanceolate, apex acute, base truncate, concave or not, ascending to reflexed, c. 1 mm long; pedicel 5 – 15 mm long
    Flowers
    Flower buds globose or cylindrical, apex acute or obtuse; bracteole ovate or narrowly oblong, up to 0.5 mm long Flowers c. 12 – 14 mm long; calyx 5 – 8 × 11.5 – 15 mm, greyish tomentose to puberulous externally, the lobe apices obtuse; standard petal 10.5 – 14.5 mm long, blade 2.8 – 5.5 × 4.6 – 8.8 mm, claw 7.2 – 9.3 mm long, depressed-ovate, apex rounded or emarginate, base rounded to subcordate, margin entire, externally glabrous; other petals (6 –) 8.7 – 11.5 × (0.36 –)1.1 – 2.6 mm, lanceolate to linear, apex acute, base attenuate, margin rarely sinuous, glabrous; stamens (4.7 –) 7 – 10 mm long, filaments 1.5 – 5 mm long, anthers 2.3 – 5.5 mm long, ovary 10 – 12.6 mm long, stipitate
    Fruits
    Fruit a 6 – 12 cm long samara; seed-chamber 2 – 3 cm long, sub-globose; upper margin 1 – 17 mm wide; lower margin 1 – 5 mm wide, apiculate; stipe 6 – 13 mm long; bracts reflexed, persistent, or bracts and calyces caducous; seed testa smooth
    Distribution
    Myroxylon balsamum occurs in Central America, and northern and western South America (Map 1).
    Ecology
    The species is fairly common in tropical forest at 200 – 690 m altitude. In Peru and Brazil the species is mostly associated with rivers, and sometimes grows on lateritic soil.
    Conservation
    Myroxylon balsamum is more restricted in its geographical distribution than M. peruiferum. It is known from a number of localities in Central America and northern South America. At present it is assessed as being of least concern (LC), although the species is under threat from logging, especially in the Amazon Forest. In remnants of mesophyllous forest it is likely that logging will become a threat to the species in the near future and the conservation assessment would then have to be changed to Vulnerable.
    Note
    Flowering and fruiting throughout the year. Myroxylon balsamum is distinguished by its leaflets with a dull adaxial surface, the leaflet blade with inconspicuous pellucid dots and streaks, the calyx lobes obtuse, longer flowers 10 mm (without pedicel) and seeds smooth. Lanceolate, reflexed bracts and linear petals are frequent characteristics of material from Peru and Brazil. Collections of the species from Venezuela and Panama sometimes have bracts which are not reflexed, but other vegetative characters are as cited above.Historically, infra-specific taxa of Myroxylon balsamum have been accepted in a number of treatments (e.g., Harms 1908; Rudd 1968; Isely 1981). Rudd (1968) recognised infraspecific taxa based mostly on differing chemistry of the balsam, as well as the length and width of the fruits. We do not consider these traits to be consistent and thus do not recognise infraspecific taxa in our treatment.
    Vernacular
    Brazil: Bálsamo (A. Ducke 23787), Cumarú (D. C. Vasconcelos 11036), Costa Rica: Bálsamo (W. H. Hatheway 1660), Cuba: Guatemala (E. L. Ekman 17553); Colômbia: Bálsamo (R. Romero 7008); Tolu or Bálsamo de Tolu (H. N. Whitford & J. Pinzon 9); El Salvador: Bálsamo (G. P. Lewis & C. E. Hughes 1736), Bálsamo-negro (P. C. Standley 19310); Bálsamo do Peru (Natural History Museum: BM 53809), Crusnagua (S. Haynes 25); Ecuador: Bálsamo (A. Dike & R. Romero 1165), Pido-quera (J. A. Duke 8391), Guatemala: Nabá (Aguilar 64); Honduras: Bálsamo (C. E. Hughes 283); Panamá: Barba (G. de Neves 4932); Peru: Yarina-cocha (G. Tessmann 5470), Estoraque (Kroll 223); Quino-quino (BM53831); México: Bálsamo (Reko 115011), Palo de bálsamo (E. Matuda 16529), Nabá (J. Marroquin 278), Bálsamo-ó-nabá (J. Chavelas & A. Gomez ES 762), Mattaluca (H. Finek 1865); Nicaraguá: Bálsamo (A. Grisalva & D. Soza 3724); Venezuela: Bálsamo (A. L. Bernardi 7008).
    [FTEA]

    Leguminosae, J. B. Gillett, R. M. Polhill & B. Verdcourt. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1971

    Habit
    Tree with 5–11(–15)-foliolate leaves.
    Leaves
    Lateral leaflets alternate, oblong-ovate to -elliptic, acuminate, with pellucid dots and streaks.
    Flowers
    Flowers in racemes, whitish, 1–1.2 cm. long; anthers nearly as long as the filaments, conspicuous.
    Fruits
    Fruit flattened and wing-like, broadened, hardened and 1-seeded at the apex, indehiscent.
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Conservation
    Not Threatened
    Ecology
    Africa: Cultivated
    Habit
    Perennial, Not climbing, Tree
    Vernacular
    Balsam, Balsam Of Tolu, Balsamo, Balsamo De Tolu, Balsamo Del Peru, Kata-kamanchal, Sambranee, Tolu Balsam
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Habit
    Perennial, Not climbing, Tree
    Vernacular
    Balsam Of Peru, Balsamito, Black Balsam, Indian Balsam, Myroxocarpin, Peru Balsam, Peru Balsam Tree, Peruvian Balsam
    [ILDIS]

    International Legume Database and Information Service

    Habit
    Perennial, Not climbing, Tree

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Belize, Bolivia, Brazil North, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico Central, Mexico Gulf, Mexico Northeast, Mexico Northwest, Mexico Southeast, Mexico Southwest, Nicaragua, Panamá, Peru, Venezuela

    Introduced into:

    Cuba, Dominican Republic, Florida, Gabon, Ghana, India, Jawa, Puerto Rico, Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Tanzania, Trinidad-Tobago, Uganda, Zaïre

    Myroxylon balsamum (L.) Harms appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 1, 2000 Valente, G.E. [544], Brazil K000892092
    Jul 1, 1997 Moura, F. [473], Brazil K000892095
    Jan 1, 1996 Cheek, M. [5379], Cameroon K000436524
    Jan 1, 1991 Pinheiro, R.S. [280], Bahia K000188316
    Jan 1, 1988 Hinton, G.B. [12540], Mexico K000118964
    Jan 1, 1988 Hinton, G.B. [12298], Mexico K000118965
    Jan 1, 1988 Hinton, G.B. [12296], Mexico K000118966
    Jan 1, 1988 Spruce, R. [5075], Ecuador K000201038
    Jan 1, 1988 Spruce, R. [5075], Ecuador K000201039
    Jan 1, 1988 Pinheiro, R.S. [280], Bahia K000188315
    Jan 1, 1988 Heringer, E.P. [12159], Brazil K000892096
    Jan 1, 1988 Archer, W.A. [7714], Brazil K000892087
    Jan 1, 1988 Macedo, A. [787], Brazil K000892086
    Jan 1, 1988 Kuhlmann, J.G. [s.n.], Brazil K000892091
    Jan 1, 1988 Warszewicz, A.J. [s.n.], Ecuador K000500797 isotype
    Jan 1, 1988 Regnell, A.F. [III-1758], Brazil K000892088
    Jan 1, 1988 s.coll. [s.n.] K000892078
    Jan 1, 1988 s.coll. [s.n.] K000892079
    Jan 1, 1988 s.coll. [s.n.] K000892080
    Jan 1, 1988 Glaziou [12566], Brazil K000892081
    Jan 1, 1988 Méllo, J.C. [s.n.], Brazil K000892090
    Jan 1, 1988 Méllo, J.C. [s.n.], Brazil K000892077
    Jan 1, 1988 Hambury, D. [s.n.], Brazil K000892082
    Jan 1, 1980 Heringer, E.P. [5288], Brazil K000892094
    Jan 1, 1967 Hatschbach, G.G. [14495], Brazil K000892089
    Pennington, R.T. [647], Ecuador K000556948
    Ducke, A. [s.n.], Brazil K000892083
    Ducke, A. [s.n.], Brazil K000892084
    Lewis, G.P. [1736], El Salvador 55901.000
    Lewis, G.L. [s.n.], El Salvador 55903.000
    Krukoff, B.A. [5484], Brazil K000892076
    Krukoff, B.A. [5484], Brazil K000892085
    Souza, L.R.M. [49], Brazil K000892093
    Owens, S.J., USA Myroxylon balsamum var. pereirae 54085.000

    First published in Notizbl. Königl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 5: 94 (1908)

    Accepted by

    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • van der Maesen, L.J.G. & Sosef, M.S.M. (2016). Flore du Gabon 49: 1-407. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Hokche, O., Berry, P.E. & Huber, O. (eds.) (2008). Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela: 1-859. Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.
    • Nelson Sutherland, C.H. (2008). Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras.
    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Jørgensen, P.M. & León-Yánes, S. (eds.) (1999). Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador: 1-1181. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Brako, L. & Zarucchi, J.L. (1993). Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 45: i-xl, 1-1286. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    • Lock, J.M. (1989). Legumes of Africa a check-list: 1-619. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.

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    • Forzza, R.C., Zappi, D. & Souza, V.C. (2016-continuously updated). Flora do Brasil 2020 em construção http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/listaBrasil/ConsultaPublicaUC/ResultadoDaConsultaNovaConsulta.do.
    • van der Maesen, L.J.G. & Sosef, M.S.M. (2016). Flore du Gabon 49: 1-407. Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris.
    • Villaseñor, J.L. (2016). Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87: 559-902.
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    • Idárraga-Piedrahita, A., Ortiz, R.D.C., Callejas Posada, R. & Merello, M. (eds.) (2011). Flora de Antioquia: Catálogo de las Plantas Vasculares 2: 1-939. Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín.
    • Hammel, B.E., Grayum, M.H., Herrera & C. & Zamora, N. (eds.) (2010). Manual de plantas de Costa Rica volumen V. Dicotiledóneas (Clusiaceae-Gunneraceae) Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 119: 1-970. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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    • Lock, J.M. & Ford, C.S. (2004). Legumes of Malesia a Check-List: 1-295. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Kumar, S. & Sane, P.V. (2003). Legumes of South Asia. A Checklist: 1-536. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Stevens, W.D., Ulloa U., C., Pool, A. & Montiel, O.M. (2001). Flora de Nicaragua Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 85: i-xlii, 1-2666. Missouri Botanical Garden.
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    • D'Arcy, W.G. (1987). Flora of Panama. Checklist and Index. Monographs in Systematic Botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 17: 1-328. Missouri Botanical Garden.
    International Legume Database and Information Service
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    Sources

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    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

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    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    International Legume Database and Information Service
    International Legume Database and Information Service (ILDIS) V10.39 Nov 2011
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Bulletin
    Kew Bulletin
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Legumes of the World Online
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0/