1. Family: Poaceae Barnhart
    1. Genus: Perotis Aiton
      1. Perotis indica (L.) Kuntze

        This species is accepted, and its native range is W. Tropical Africa to Tanzania, W. Indian Ocean, Tropical & Subtropical Asia.

    [GB]
    Habit
    Annual; caespitose. Culms geniculately ascending; 10-40 cm long. Ligule an eciliate membrane. Leaf-blades lanceolate, or ovate; 1-3 cm long; 2-7 mm wide.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence composed of racemes. Racemes 1; single; multilateral; 2-15 cm long. Spikelet packing crowded, or contiguous; irregular. Spikelets spreading, or ascending; solitary. Fertile spikelets pedicelled. Pedicels oblong; 0.2 mm long.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear, or lanceolate; subterete; 1.7-3 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus oblong; 0.2-0.5 mm long.
    Fertile
    Spikelets comprising 1 fertile florets; without rhachilla extension. Spikelets linear, or lanceolate; subterete; 1.7-3 mm long; falling entire. Spikelet callus oblong; 0.2-0.5 mm long.
    Glume
    Glumes similar; exceeding apex of florets; firmer than fertile lemma. Lower glume lanceolate; 1.5-2.5 mm long; 1 length of upper glume; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Lower glume lateral veins absent. Lower glume surface hispidulous. Lower glume apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Lower glume awn 5-15 mm long. Upper glume lanceolate; 1.5-2.5 mm long; 2-3 length of adjacent fertile lemma; membranous; without keels; 1 -veined. Upper glume primary vein distinct. Upper glume lateral veins absent. Upper glume surface hispidulous. Upper glume apex acuminate; awned; 1 -awned. Upper glume awn 5-15 mm long.
    Florets
    Fertile lemma lanceolate; 0.5-1 mm long; hyaline; without keel; 1 -veined. Lemma apex acute. Palea hyaline.
    Flowers
    Anthers 3.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis with adherent pericarp; fusiform; isodiametric.
    Distribution
    Africa: west tropical, west-central tropical, east tropical, and western Indian ocean. Asia-temperate: China and eastern Asia. Asia-tropical: India, Indo-China, and Malesia. Australasia: Australia.
    Reference
    Cynodonteae. FTEA.
    [FTEA]

    Gramineae, W. D. Clayton, S. M. Phillips & S. A. Renvoize. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1974

    Habit
    Loosely tufted annual; culms 10–40 cm. high, ascending.
    Leaves
    Leaf-blades lanceolate to narrowly ovate, 1–3 cm. long, 2–7 mm. wide.
    Inflorescences
    Spike 2–15 cm. long, exserted from the uppermost sheath, the spikelets densely to rather loosely packed and ascending or spreading horizontally.
    Spikelets
    Spikelets 1.5–2.5 mm. long, with a short stipitiform callus 0.2–0.5 mm. long; glumes uniformly appressed scaberulous to minutely hispidulous, the midnerve inconspicuous, bearing a flexuous awn 5–15 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Caryopsis terete.
    Habitat
    Waste land; 300 m.
    Distribution
    T6 India and SE. Asiaprobably introduced to Africa, where it is recorded in W. Africa, the Central African Republic and Zaire

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Bangladesh, Benin, Borneo, Burkina, Cambodia, Cameroon, Central African Repu, Chad, China North-Central, China South-Central, China Southeast, Congo, East Himalaya, Gabon, Gambia, Hainan, India, Ivory Coast, Jawa, Laos, Lesser Sunda Is., Madagascar, Malaya, Maluku, Mauritania, Myanmar, Nepal, New Guinea, Nigeria, Philippines, Sierra Leone, South China Sea, Sri Lanka, Sulawesi, Sumatera, Taiwan, Tanzania, Thailand, Togo, Vietnam, West Himalaya, Zaïre

    Extinct in:

    Réunion

    Introduced into:

    Guinea-Bissau, Queensland

    Perotis indica (L.) Kuntze appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 24, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [11263], Thailand K000648161
    Mar 24, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [15079], Thailand K000648162
    Mar 24, 2009 Kerr, A.F.G. [15079], Thailand K000648163
    Oct 1, 1991 Royle, J. F. [280], India K000245204 Unknown type material
    Apr 8, 1932 Perrotet, G. S. [1290], India K000245205 isotype
    Kerr, A.F.G. [9022], Thailand K000621641
    Kerr, A.F.G. [12630], Thailand K000621642
    Smitinand, T. [8907], Thailand K000682698
    Put [4175], Thailand K000621643
    Put [4175], Thailand K000621644
    Put [4339], Thailand K000621645
    Put [4339], Thailand K000621646
    Chantaranothai [90/776], Thailand K000682699
    Niyomdham [1620], Thailand K000682693
    Niyomdham, C. [282], Thailand K000682694
    Murata, G. [T-17198], Thailand K000682695
    Laegaard [21663], Thailand K000682696
    Hambananda, C. [212], Thailand K000682697

    First published in Revis. Gen. Pl. 2: 787 (1891)

    Accepted by

    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Veldkamp, J.F. & al. (2013). A revision of Mnesithea (Gramineae - Rottboelliinae) in Malesia and Thailand Blumea 58: 277-292.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Sita, P. & Moutsambote, J.-M. (2005). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Congo, ed. sept. 2005: 1-158. ORSTOM, Centre de Brazzaville.
    • Kress, W.J., DeFilipps, R.A., Farr, E. & Kyi, D.Y.Y. (2003). A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Turner, I.M. (1995 publ. 1997). A catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Malaya Gardens' Bulletin Singapore 47(2): 347-655.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Karthikeyan, S., Jain, S.K., Nayar, M.P. & Sanjappa, M. (1989). Florae Indicae Enumeratio: Monocotyledonae: 1-435. Botanical Survey of India, Calcutta.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Boulvert, Y. (1977). Catalogue de la Flore de Centrafrique 2(2): 1-94. ORSTOM, Bangui.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Bosser, J. & Renvoize, S.A. (2018). Flore des Mascareignes 203: 1-276. IRD Éditions, MSIRI, RBG-Kew, Paris.
    • Veldkamp, J.F. & al. (2013). A revision of Mnesithea (Gramineae - Rottboelliinae) in Malesia and Thailand Blumea 58: 277-292.
    • Thiombiano, A., Schmidt, M., Dressler, S., Ouédraogo, A., Hahn, K. & Zizka, G. (2012). Catalogue des plantes vasculaires du Burkina Faso Boissiera 65: 1-391.
    • Kandwal, M.K. & Gupta, B.K. (2009). An update on grass flora of Uttarkhand Indian Journal of Forestry 32: 657-668.
    • Ahmed, Z.U. (ed.) (2008). Encyclopedia of Flora and Fauna of Bangladesh 12: 1-505. Asiatic Society of Bangladesh.
    • Wu, Z. & Raven, P.H. (eds.) (2006). Poaceae Flora of China 22: 1-733. Missouri Botanical Garden Press, St. Louis.
    • Sosef, M.S.M. & al. (2006). Check-list des plantes vasculaires du Gabon Scripta Botanica Belgica 35: 1-438.
    • Akoègninou, A., van der Burg, W.J. & van der Maesen, L.J.G. (eds.) (2006). Flore Analytique du Bénin: 1-1034. Backhuys Publishers.
    • Catarino, L., Sampaio Martins, E., Pinto-Basto, M.F. & Diniz, M.A. (2006). Plantas Vasculares e Briófitos da Guiné-Bissau: 1-298. Instituto de investigação científica tropical, Instituto Português de apoio ao desenvolvimento.
    • Clayton, W.D., Harman, K.T. & Williamson, H. (2006). World Grass Species - Synonymy database The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Mallett, K. (ed.) (2005). Flora of Australia 44B: 1-486. Australian Government Publishing Service, Canberra.
    • Aké Assi, L. (2002). Flore de la Côte-d'Ivoire: catalogue systématique, biogéographie et écologie. II Boissiera 58: 1-401.
    • Noltie, H.J. (2000). Flora of Bhutan 3(2): 457-883. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh.
    • Turner, I.M., Xing, F. & Corlett, R.T. (2000). An annotated check-list of the vascular plants of the South China Sea and its shores The Raffles bulletin of Zoology, Suppl. 8: 23-116.
    • Press, J.R. et al. (2000). Annotated Checklist of the Flowering Plants of Nepal: i-x, 1-430. Natural History Museum, London.
    • Dassanayake (ed.) (1994). A Revised Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon 8: 1-458. Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. PVT. LTD., New Delhi, Calcutta.
    • Barry, J. P. & Celles, J.S. (1991). Flore de Mauritanie 2: 360-550. Centre Regional de Documentation Pedagogique, Nice.
    • Jones, M. (1991). A checklist of Gambian plants: 1-33. Michael Jones, The Gambia College.
    • Brunel, J.F., Hiepo, P. & Scholz, H. (eds.) (1984). Flore Analytique du Togo Phanérogames: 1-751. GTZ, Eschborn.
    • Clayton, W.D., Phillips, S.M., Renvoize, S.A. (1974). Gramineae Flora of Tropical East Africa 2: 177-449.
    • Hepper, F.N. (ed.) (1972). Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3(2): 277-574.
    • Lebrun, J.-P., Audru, J., Gaston, A. & Mosnier, M. (1972). Catalogue des Plantes Vasculaires du Tchad Méridional: 1-289. Institut d' Elevage et de Médecine Vétérinaire des Pays Tropicaux, Maisons Alfort.
    • Gilliland, H.B. (1971). A revised flora of Malaya 3: 1-319. The Royal Botanic Gardens, Singapore.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Clayton in Flora of West Tropical Africa, ed. 2, 3: 411 (1972).
    • Kuntze, Rev. Gen.P1.2: 787 (1891).

    Sources

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    GrassBase - The Online World Grass Flora
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2020. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Science Photographs
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/