1. Family: Combretaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Combretum Loefl.
      1. Combretum apiculatum Sond.

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Kenya to S. Africa.

    [FZ]

    Combretaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Small semi-deciduous tree 4–10 m. high, rarely a shrub (doubtfully recorded as scandent); crown open, flattened to rounded; bark greyish-black, deeply fissured, scaly; branchlets tomentose to glabrous (except for scales), lepidote; leaf-buds black or dark-brown.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite; lamina 3–13 x 1·5–7·5 cm., glutinous when young, broadly to narrowly obovate-elliptic or oblong-elliptic or ovate to sub-circular, lepidote (sometimes inconspicuously so) and pubescent or pilose to glabrous (except for scales), apex usually apiculate or mucronate and usually twisted, base usually rounded to subcordate; lateral nerves 5–7 pairs, ± arcuate, reticulation rather inconspicuous to prominulous beneath; petiole up to 10 mm. long, leaving a prominent peg.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of axillary spikes 3–7 cm. long; rhachis lepidote and otherwise glabrous or hairy; bracts 1·5 x 0·3 mm., caducous.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile, yellow.
    Receptacle
    Lower receptacle 2 mm. long, lepidote and otherwise hairy or glabrous; upper receptacle 3–4 x 2·5–3 mm., campanulate, lepidote and otherwise glabrous or pubescent.
    Calyx
    Sepals 0·5–1 mm. long, broadly deltate.
    Corolla
    Petals 1·2 x 1·2 mm., obtriangular, ciliate at the apex.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments 5 mm. long, anthers 1·2–1·5 mm. long.
    Disc
    Disk with a pilose scarcely free margin.
    Style
    Style 5 mm. long, stout, not expanded at the apex.
    Fruits
    Fruit 2–3 x 1·5–2·5 cm., shiny (glutinous when young), subcircular to elliptic in outline, lepidote, otherwise glabrous or pubescent, apical peg up to 1 mm. long, wings up to 7 mm. broad, stipe 4–8 mm. long.
    Cotyledons
    Cotyledons 2, 2·5–2·8 x 3–4 cm., arising below soil level; petioles 4–5 cm. long.
    Scales
    Scales yellowish-red, usually inconspicuous and often concealed by glutinous excretions, c. 45(50)–75(90)µ in diam., scalloped at each marginal cell; cells delimited by (7)8(10) radial walls and sometimes also up to 5 tangential walls and rarely with extra radial walls, marginal cells 7–10; cell-walls clear and thin, cells ± transparent.
    [FTEA]

    Combretaceae, G. E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Habit
    Small tree up to 10 m. high, rarely a shrub; bark grey to greyish black, smooth or reticulated; leaf-buds black or dark brown.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite; lamina subcoriaceous to papyraceous, glutinous when young, broadly to narrowly obovate-elliptic or oblong-elliptic or ovate to subcircular, 3–14 cm. long, 1.5–7.5 cm. wide, apex usually apiculate or mucronate and usually twisted, base usually rounded to subcordate, mature leaves usually glabrous (except for scales) in E. Africa, sometimes pilose along the midrib and principal nerves beneath, then lamina less than 7 cm. long; scales yellowish red, not contiguous and sometimes inconspicuous due to the glutinous secretions; lateral nerves 5–10 pairs, reticulation rather inconspicuous to prominulous beneath; petiole up to 10 mm. long.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of axillary spikes up to 3–7 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers yellow, fragrance if any, not recorded.
    Receptacle
    Lower receptacle lepidote and otherwise hairy or glabrous; upper receptacle campanulate, 3–4 mm. long, 2.5–3 mm. in diameter, lepidote and otherwise glabrous or pubescent.
    Calyx
    Sepals broadly deltate.
    Corolla
    Petals obtriangular, 1.2 mm. long and wide, apex ciliate.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments 5 mm. long, inserted at the margin of the disk; anthers 1.2–1.5 mm. long.
    Disc
    Disk with a pilose scarcely free margin.
    Style
    Style 4 mm. long.
    Fruits
    Fruit (fig. 5/15, p. 16) subcircular to elliptic or oblong-elliptic in outline, 2–3 cm. long, 1.5–2.5 cm. wide, glutinous when young, shiny when mature, lepidote and otherwise glabrous or pubescent; apical peg up to 1 mm. long; wings up to 7 mm. wide; stipe 4–8 mm. long.
    Germination
    Cotyledons 2, arising below soil-level; petiole 4–5 cm. long.
    Scales
    Scales (fig. 2/15, p. 13) 45–75(–90) μ in diameter, scalloped at each marginal cell; cells delimited by (7–)8(–10) radial walls and sometimes also up to 5 tangential walls and rarely with extra radial walls, marginal cells 7–10; cell walls clear and thin, cells not opaque.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Caprivi Strip, Kenya, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zaïre, Zimbabwe

    Combretum apiculatum Sond. appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Mar 1, 2014 Bingham, M.G. [11534], Zambia K000812461
    Burtt, B.D. [1224], Tanzania K000226494 isotype
    Burtt, B.D. [1120], Tanzania K000226495 paratype
    Burtt, B.D. [856], Tanzania K000226496 paratype
    Buchanan, J., C.M.G. [1263], Malawi K000226516 lectotype

    First published in Linnaea 23: 45 (1850)

    Accepted by

    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wickens, G.E. (1973). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Combretaceae: 1-99.
    • Liben, L. (1968). Flore du Congo du Rwanda et du Burundi, Combretaceae: 1-105. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique, Bruxelles.

    Literature

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Exell in Kirkia 7: 192 (1970).
    • Dale & Greenway, Kenya Trees and Shrubs p. 141 (1961).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 136 (1949).
    • Engl. & Diels in Monographieen Afrikanischer Pflanzen-Familien und Gattungen 3: 42, t. 12/C (1899).
    • Sond. in Linnaea 23: 45 (1850).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0