1. Family: Combretaceae R.Br.
    1. Genus: Combretum Loefl.
      1. Combretum imberbe Wawra

        This species is accepted, and its native range is Tanzania to S. Africa.

    [FTEA]

    Combretaceae, G. E. Wickens. Flora of Tropical East Africa. 1973

    Habit
    Tree to 33 m. tall or a shrub, branches often becoming spiny; new growth densely rufous lepidote.
    Leaves
    Leaves opposite or subopposite; lamina silvery, papyraceous to subcoriaceous, narrowly elliptic to elliptic-oblong or elliptic-obovate, (2.5–)5–6(–8.5) cm. long, (l–)2–2.5(–3) cm. wide, apex obtuse or rounded and often mucronate, base obtuse to narrowly cuneate, densely silvery lepidote on both surfaces, otherwise glabrous, scales often contiguous or overlapping; lateral nerves 4–7 pairs, scarcely visible; petiole 4–10 mm. long, densely rufous lepidote.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescence up to ± 10 cm. long, spikes often forming a terminal panicle by suppression of the upper leaves, or unbranched lateral spikes up to 5 cm. long.
    Flowers
    Flowers yellowish.
    Receptacle
    Lower and upper receptacles densely silvery or rufous lepidote, otherwise glabrous or nearly so.
    Calyx
    Sepals ovate-triangular.
    Corolla
    Petals obovate to spathulate, 1–1.2 mm. long, 0.4–0.6 mm. wide, glabrous.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments 1.5–2 mm. long; anthers 0.3–0.4 mm. long.
    Disc
    Disk 2–2.5 mm. in diameter, margin densely tomentose.
    Style
    Style 2 mm. long, lower part densely glandular.
    Fruits
    Fruit (fig. 4/4, p. 15) subcircular to broadly ovate in outline, 1.3–1.8 cm. long, 1.3–1.8 cm. wide, fairly densely to densely silvery lepidote, otherwise glabrous or nearly so, apex pointed; apical peg up to 1 mm. long or absent; wings up to 7 mm. broad; stipe 2–3 mm. long.
    Germination
    Cotyledons 2, 15–18 mm. long, 15 mm. wide, with petioles 9–11 mm. long, arising at or below soil-level.
    Scales
    Scales (fig. 1/4, p. 12) 120–300 μ in diameter, roughly circular, cells very numerous and small (marginal cells ± 40–100), divided by many radial and tangential walls; cells beneath the scales with conspicuous round papillae.
    Habitat
    Locally common in wooded grassland on alluvial soils and “black cotton” soils; 0–1000 m.
    Distribution
    T6 T8
    [FZ]

    Combretaceae, A. W. Exell. Flora Zambesiaca 4. 1978

    Habit
    Tree up to 30 m. tall (usually 6–10 m.) or shrub; bark light-grey or whitish; branchlets often becoming spiny, glabrous.
    Leaves
    Leaves silvery, opposite or sub-opposite; lamina 2·5–8·5 x 1–3 cm., papyraceous to subcoriaceous, narrowly elliptic to elliptic-oblong, densely silvery-lepidote on both surfaces otherwise glabrous, scales often contiguous or overlapping, apex obtuse or rounded and often mucronate, base obtuse to narrowly cuneate; lateral nerves 4–7 pairs, slightly prominent on both surfaces, usually without domatia; petiole 4–10 mm. long, lepidote but otherwise glabrous or almost so.
    Inflorescences
    Inflorescences of spikes up to c. 10 cm. long, often forming a terminal panicle by suppression of the upper leaves, or unbranched lateral spikes up to 5 cm. long; rhachis lepidote, otherwise glabrous or sparsely puberulous; bracts absent or very caducous.
    Flowers
    Flowers sessile, yellowish, densely lepidote but otherwise glabrous or nearly so.
    Receptacle
    Lower receptacle 2·5(3) x 0·25–0·3 mm., densely silvery- or rufous-lepidote, otherwise glabrous or nearly so; upper receptacle little developed, almost flat when the flowers are mature, densely silvery- or rufous-lepidote, otherwise glabrous or nearly so.
    Calyx
    Sepals 1·5 x 1·5 mm., ovate-triangular.
    Corolla
    Petals 1–1·2 x 0·4–0·6 mm., obovate to spathulate, glabrous.
    Stamens
    Stamen-filaments 1·5–2 mm. long; anthers 0·3–0·4 mm. long.
    Disc
    Disk 2–2·5 mm. in diam., margin densely tomentose.
    Fruits
    Fruit 1·3–1·8 cm., subcircular to broadly ovate in outline, fairly densely to densely silvery-lepidote, apex pointed, apical peg very short (up to 0·5 mm.) to medium (1 mm.) or absent, wings up to 7 mm. broad, stipe 2–3 mm. long.
    Cotyledons
    Cotyledons 2, 15–18 x 15 mm., subcircular, with petioles 9–11 mm. long arising at or below soil level.
    Scales
    Scales 120–300µ in diam., roughly circular, cells very numerous and small (marginal cells c. 40–100), divided as in the sectional description; cells beneath the scales with conspicuous round papillae.

    Images

    Distribution

    Native to:

    Angola, Botswana, Caprivi Strip, KwaZulu-Natal, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Northern Provinces, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, Zimbabwe

    Common Names

    English
    Bastard yellow wood, Elephant trunk, Ivory tree, Large fruited bushwillow, Large fruited combretum, Leadwood

    Combretum imberbe Wawra appears in other Kew resources:

    Date Reference Identified As Barcode Type Status
    Sep 23, 2008 Crawford, F. [59], Namibia K000450440
    Jan 1, 1967 Kirk, J. [s.n.], Mozambique K000226544 holotype
    Jan 1, 1961 Welwitsch [4372], Angola K000226542 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1961 Welwitsch [4283], Angola K000226543 Unknown type material
    Jan 1, 1960 Marloth [1264], Namibia K000226564 Unknown type material
    Long, D.G. [318], Botswana K000489047
    Long, D.G. [238], Botswana K000489048
    Smuts, J.C. [1988], South Africa K000812514
    Smith, P.A. [294], Botswana K000489040
    Hoogh, R.J. de [247], Botswana K000489043
    Kelaole, E.T. [586], Botswana K000489042
    Brown, R.C. [7572], Botswana K000489046
    Williams, D.T. [64], Botswana K000489041
    Allen, A. [360], Botswana K000489044
    Allen, A. [231], Botswana K000489045

    First published in Sitzungsber. Kaiserl. Akad. Wiss., Math.-Naturwiss. Cl. 38: 556 (1860)

    Accepted by

    • Jongkind, C.C.H. (2014). Notes on African Combretum Loefl. Species (Combretaceae) Adansonia, sér. 3, 36: 315-327.
    • Mannheimer, C.A. & Curtis, B.A. (eds.) (2009). Le Roux and Müller's field guide to the trees and shrubs of Namibia, rev. ed.: 1-525. Macmillan Education Namibia, Windhoek.
    • Figueiredo, E. & Smith, G.F. (2008). Plants of Angola Strelitzia 22: 1-279. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    • Govaerts, R. (1999). World Checklist of Seed Plants 3(1, 2a & 2b): 1-1532. MIM, Deurne.
    • Launert, E. (ed.) (1978). Flora Zambesiaca 4: 1-658. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew.
    • Wickens, G.E. (1973). Flora of Tropical East Africa, Combretaceae: 1-99.

    Literature

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    • Germishuizen, G. & Meyer, N.L. (eds.) (2003). Plants of Southern Africa an annotated checklist Strelitzia 14: 1-1231. National Botanical Institute, Pretoria.
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    • Exell in Kirkia 7: 171 (1970).
    • F. White, Forest Flora of Northern Rhodesia p. 284 (1962).
    • J.P.M. Brenan, Check-lists of the Forest Trees and Shrubs of the British Empire no. 5, part II, Tanganyika Territory p. 138 (1949).
    • Engl. & Diels in Monographieen Afrikanischer Pflanzen-Familien und Gattungen 3: 14 (1899).
    • Wawra in Sitz. Akad. Wiss. Wien, Math.-Nat. Klasse 38: 556 (1860).

    Sources

    Flora Zambesiaca
    Flora Zambesiaca
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    Flora of Tropical East Africa
    http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0

    Herbarium Catalogue Specimens
    'The Herbarium Catalogue, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Please enter the date on which you consulted the system.
    Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/

    Kew Backbone Distributions
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Kew Names and Taxonomic Backbone
    The International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families 2018. Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
    © Copyright 2017 International Plant Names Index and World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0

    Plants and People Africa
    Common Names from Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com/
    © Plants and People Africa http://www.plantsandpeopleafrica.com http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/